Preamble
The States Parties to this Statute,
Conscious that all peoples are united by common bonds, their cultures pieced
together in a shared heritage, and concerned that this delicate mosaic may be
shattered at any time,
Mindful that during this century millions of children, women and men have been
victims of unimaginable atrocities that deeply shock the conscience of humanity,
Recognizing that such grave crimes threaten the peace, security and well-being of
the world,
Affirming that the most serious crimes of concern to the international community
as a whole must not go unpunished and that their effective prosecution must be
ensured by taking measures at the national level and
by enhancing international cooperation,
Determined to put an end to impunity for the perpetrators of these crimes and
thus to contribute to the prevention of such crimes,
Recalling that it is the duty of every State to exercise its criminal jurisdiction over
those responsible for international crimes,
Reaffirming the Purposes and Principles of the Charter of the United Nations,
and in particular that all States shall refrain from the threat or use of force against
the territorial integrity or political independence of any State, or in any other
manner inconsistent with the Purposes of the United Nations,
Emphasizing in this connection that nothing in this Statute shall be taken as
authorizing any State Party to intervene in an armed conflict or in the internal
affairs of any State,
Determined to these ends and for the sake of present and future generations, to
establish an independent permanent International Criminal Court in relationship
with the United Nations system, with jurisdiction over the most serious crimes of
concern to the international community as a whole,
Emphasizing that the International Criminal Court established under this Statute
shall be complementary to national criminal jurisdictions,
Resolved to guarantee lasting respect for and the enforcement of international
justice,
Have agreed as follows:
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Part I Establishment of the Court
Article 1
The Court
An International Criminal Court (‘the Court’) is hereby established. It shall be a permanent
institution and shall have the power to exercise its jurisdiction over persons for the most
serious crimes of international concern, as referred to in this Statute, and shall be
complementary to national criminal jurisdictions. The jurisdiction and functioning of the
Court shall be governed by the provisions of this Statute.
Article 2
Relationship of the Court with the United Nations
The Court shall be brought into relationship with the United Nations through an agreement to
be approved by the Assembly of States Parties to this Statute and thereafter concluded by the
President of the Court on its behalf.
Article 3
Seat of the Court
1. The seat of the Court shall be established at The Hague in the Netherlands (‘the
host State’).
2. The Court shall enter into a headquarters agreement with the host State, to be
approved by the Assembly of States Parties and thereafter concluded by the
President of the Court on its behalf.
3. The Court may sit elsewhere, whenever it considers it desirable, as provided in this
Statute.
Article 4
Legal status and powers of the Court
1. The Court shall have international legal personality. It shall also have such legal
capacity as may be necessary for the exercise of its functions and the fulfilment of
its purposes.
2. The Court may exercise its functions and powers, as provided in this Statute, on
the territory of any State Party and, by special agreement, on the territory of any
other State.
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Part II Jurisdiction, admissibility and applicable law
Article 5
Crimes within the jurisdiction of the Court
1. The jurisdiction of the Court shall be limited to the most serious crimes of concern
to the international community as a whole. The Court has jurisdiction in
accordance with this Statute with respect to the following crimes:
(a) The crime of genocide;
(b) Crimes against humanity;
(c) War crimes;
(d) The crime of aggression.
2. The Court shall exercise jurisdiction over the crime of aggression once a provision
is adopted in accordance with articles 121 and 123 defining the crime and setting
out the conditions under which the Court shall exercise jurisdiction with respect to
this crime. Such a provision shall be consistent with the relevant provisions of the
Charter of the United Nations.
Article 6
Genocide
For the purpose of this Statute, ‘genocide’ means any of the following acts
committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial or
religious group, as such:
(a) Killing members of the group;
(b) Causing serious bodily or mental harm to members of the group;
(c) Deliberately inflicting on the group conditions of life calculated to bring
about its physical destruction in whole or in part;
(d) Imposing measures intended to prevent births within the group;
(e) Forcibly transferring children of the group to another group.
Article 7
Crimes against humanity
1. For the purpose of this Statute, ‘crime against humanity’ means any of the
following acts when committed as part of a widespread or systematic attack
directed against any civilian population, with knowledge of the attack:
(a) Murder;
(b) Extermination;
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(c) Enslavement;
(d) Deportation or forcible transfer of population;
(e) Imprisonment or other severe deprivation of physical liberty in violation of
fundamental rules of international law;
(f) Torture;
(g) Rape, sexual slavery, enforced prostitution, forced pregnancy, enforced
sterilization, or any other form of sexual violence of comparable gravity;
(h) Persecution against any identifiable group or collectivity on political,
racial, national, ethnic, cultural, religious, gender as defined in paragraph
3, or other grounds that are universally recognized as impermissible under
international law, in connection with any act referred to in this paragraph
or any crime within the jurisdiction of the Court;
(i) Enforced disappearance of persons;
(j) The crime of apartheid;
(k) Other inhumane acts of a similar character intentionally causing great
suffering, or serious injury to body or to mental or physical health.
2. For the purpose of paragraph 1:
(a) ‘Attack directed against any civilian population’ means a course of conduct
involving the multiple commission of acts referred to in paragraph 1
against any civilian population, pursuant to or in furtherance of a State or
organizational policy to commit such attack;
(b) ‘Extermination’ includes the intentional infliction of conditions of life,
inter alia the deprivation of access to food and medicine, calculated to
bring about the destruction of part of a population;
(c) ‘Enslavement’ means the exercise of any or all of the powers attaching to
the right of ownership over a person and includes the exercise of such
power in the course of trafficking in persons, in particular women and
children;
(d) ‘Deportation or forcible transfer of population’ means forced displacement
of the persons concerned by expulsion or other coercive acts from the area
in which they are lawfully present, without grounds permitted under
international law;
(e) ‘Torture’ means the intentional infliction of severe pain or suffering,
whether physical or mental, upon a person in the custody or under the
control of the accused; except that torture shall not include pain or
suffering arising only from, inherent in or incidental to, lawful sanctions;
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(f) ‘Forced pregnancy’ means the unlawful confinement of a woman forcibly
made pregnant, with the intent of affecting the ethnic composition of any
population or carrying out other grave violations of international law. This
definition shall not in any way be interpreted as affecting national laws
relating to pregnancy;
(g) ‘Persecution’ means the intentional and severe deprivation of fundamental
rights contrary to international law by reason of the identity of the group
or collectivity;
(h) ‘The crime of apartheid’ means inhumane acts of a character similar to
those referred to in paragraph 1, committed in the context of an
institutionalized regime of systematic oppression and domination by one
racial group over any other racial group or groups and committed with the
intention of maintaining that regime;
(i) ‘Enforced disappearance of persons’ means the arrest, detention or
abduction of persons by, or with the authorization, support or
acquiescence of, a State or a political organization, followed by a refusal to
acknowledge that deprivation of freedom or to give information on the
fate or whereabouts of those persons, with the intention of removing them
from the protection of the law for a prolonged period of time.
3. For the purpose of this Statute, it is understood that the term ‘gender’ refers to the
two sexes, male and female, within the context of society. The term ‘gender’ does
not indicate any meaning different from the above.
Article 8
War crimes
1. The Court shall have jurisdiction in respect of war crimes in particular when
committed as part of a plan or policy or as part of a large-scale commission of such
crimes.
2. For the purpose of this Statute, ‘war crimes’ means:
(a) Grave breaches of the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, namely,
any of the following acts against persons or property protected under the
provisions of the relevant Geneva Convention:
(i) Wilful killing;
(ii) Torture or inhuman treatment, including biological experiments;
(iii) Wilfully causing great suffering, or serious injury to body or health;
(iv) Extensive destruction and appropriation of property, not justified by
military necessity and carried out unlawfully and wantonly;
(v) Compelling a prisoner of war or other protected person to serve in
the forces of a hostile Power;
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(vi) Wilfully depriving a prisoner of war or other protected person of the
rights of fair and regular trial;
(vii) Unlawful deportation or transfer or unlawful confinement;
(viii) Taking of hostages.
(b) Other serious violations of the laws and customs applicable in
international armed conflict, within the established framework of
international law, namely, any of the following acts:
(i) Intentionally directing attacks against the civilian population as
such or against individual civilians not taking direct part in
hostilities;
(ii) Intentionally directing attacks against civilian objects, that is,
objects which are not military objectives;
(iii) Intentionally directing attacks against personnel, installations,
material, units or vehicles involved in a humanitarian assistance
or peacekeeping mission in accordance with the Charter of the
United Nations, as long as they are entitled to the protection
given to civilians or civilian objects under the international law
of armed conflict;
(iv) Intentionally launching an attack in the knowledge that such
attack will cause incidental loss of life or injury to civilians or
damage to civilian objects or widespread, long-term and severe
damage to the natural environment which would be clearly
excessive in relation to the concrete and direct overall military
advantage anticipated;
(v) Attacking or bombarding, by whatever means, towns, villages,
dwellings or buildings which are undefended and which are not
military objectives;
(vi) Killing or wounding a combatant who, having laid down his arms or
having no longer means of defence, has surrendered at discretion;
(vii) Making improper use of a flag of truce, of the flag or of the
military insignia and uniform of the enemy or of the United
Nations, as well as of the distinctive emblems of the Geneva
Conventions, resulting in death or serious personal injury;
(viii) The transfer, directly or indirectly, by the Occupying Power of parts
of its own civilian population into the territory it occupies, or the
deportation or transfer of all or parts of the population of the
occupied territory within or outside this territory;
(ix) Intentionally directing attacks against buildings dedicated to
religion, education, art, science or charitable purposes, historic
monuments, hospitals and places where the sick and wounded
are collected, provided they are not military objectives;
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(x) Subjecting persons who are in the power of an adverse party to
physical mutilation or to medical or scientific experiments of any
kind which are neither justified by the medical, dental or
hospital treatment of the person concerned nor carried out in his or
her interest, and which cause death to or seriously endanger the
health of such person or persons;
(xi) Killing or wounding treacherously individuals belonging to the
hostile nation or army;
(xii) Declaring that no quarter will be given;
(xiii) Destroying or seizing the enemy's property unless such destruction
or seizure be imperatively demanded by the necessities of war;
(xiv) Declaring abolished, suspended or inadmissible in a court of law the
rights and actions of the nationals of the hostile party;
(xv) Compelling the nationals of the hostile party to take part in the
operations of war directed against their own country, even if they
were in the belligerent's service before the commencement of the
war;
(xvi) Pillaging a town or place, even when taken by assault;
(xvii) Employing poison or poisoned weapons;
(xviii) Employing asphyxiating, poisonous or other gases, and all
analogous liquids, materials or devices;
(xix) Employing bullets which expand or flatten easily in the human body,
such as bullets with a hard envelope which does not entirely cover
the core or is pierced with incisions;
(xx) Employing weapons, projectiles and material and methods of
warfare which are of a nature to cause superfluous injury or
unnecessary suffering or which are inherently indiscriminate in
violation of the international law of armed conflict, provided
that such weapons, projectiles and material and methods of
warfare are the subject of a comprehensive prohibition and are
included in an annex to this Statute, by an amendment in
accordance with the relevant provisions set forth in articles 121
and 123;
(xxi) Committing outrages upon personal dignity, in particular
humiliating and degrading treatment;
(xxii) Committing rape, sexual slavery, enforced prostitution, forced
pregnancy, as defined in article 7, paragraph 2 (f), enforced
sterilization, or any other form of sexual violence also constituting a
grave breach of the Geneva Conventions;
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(xxiii) Utilizing the presence of a civilian or other protected person to
render certain points, areas or military forces immune from military
operations;
(xxiv) Intentionally directing attacks against buildings, material, medical
units and transport, and personnel using the distinctive emblems of
the Geneva Conventions in conformity with international law;
(xxv) Intentionally using starvation of civilians as a method of warfare
by depriving them of objects indispensable to their survival,
including wilfully impeding relief supplies as provided for under the
Geneva Conventions;
(xxvi) Conscripting or enlisting children under the age of fifteen years into
the national armed forces or using them to participate actively in
hostilities.
(c) In the case of an armed conflict not of an international character, serious
violations of article 3 common to the four Geneva Conventions of 12
August 1949, namely, any of the following acts committed against persons
taking no active part in the hostilities, including members of armed forces
who have laid down their arms and those placed hors de combat by
sickness, wounds, detention or any other cause:
(i) Violence to life and person, in particular murder of all kinds,
mutilation, cruel treatment and torture;
(ii) Committing outrages upon personal dignity, in particular
humiliating and degrading treatment;
(iii) Taking of hostages;
(iv) The passing of sentences and the carrying out of executions
without previous judgement pronounced by a regularly constituted
court, affording all judicial guarantees which are generally
recognized as indispensable.
(d) Paragraph 2 (c) applies to armed conflicts not of an international character
and thus does not apply to situations of internal disturbances and
tensions, such as riots, isolated and sporadic acts of violence or other acts
of a similar nature.
(e) Other serious violations of the laws and customs applicable in armed
conflicts not of an international character, within the established
framework of international law, namely, any of the following acts:
(i) Intentionally directing attacks against the civilian population as
such or against individual civilians not taking direct part in
hostilities;
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(ii) Intentionally directing attacks against buildings, material, medical
units and transport, and personnel using the distinctive emblems of
the Geneva Conventions in conformity with international law;
(iii) Intentionally directing attacks against personnel, installations,
material, units or vehicles involved in a humanitarian assistance or
peacekeeping mission in accordance with the Charter of the United
Nations, as long as they are entitled to the protection given to
civilians or civilian objects under the international law of armed
conflict;
(iv) Intentionally directing attacks against buildings dedicated to
religion, education, art, science or charitable purposes, historic
monuments, hospitals and places where the sick and wounded
are collected, provided they are not military objectives;
(v) Pillaging a town or place, even when taken by assault;
(vi) Committing rape, sexual slavery, enforced prostitution, forced
pregnancy, as defined in article 7, paragraph 2 (f), enforced
sterilization, and any other form of sexual violence also constituting
a serious violation of article 3 common to the four Geneva
Conventions;
(vii) Conscripting or enlisting children under the age of fifteen years into
armed forces or groups or using them to participate actively in
hostilities;
(viii) Ordering the displacement of the civilian population for reasons
related to the conflict, unless the security of the civilians involved or
imperative military reasons so demand;
(ix) Killing or wounding treacherously a combatant adversary;
(x) Declaring that no quarter will be given;
(xi) Subjecting persons who are in the power of another party to the
conflict to physical mutilation or to medical or scientific experiments
of any kind which are neither justified by the medical, dental or
hospital treatment of the person concerned nor carried out in his or
her interest, and which cause death to or seriously endanger the
health of such person or persons;
(xii) Destroying or seizing the property of an adversary unless such
destruction or seizure be imperatively demanded by the necessities
of the conflict;
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(f) Paragraph 2 (e) applies to armed conflicts not of an international
character and thus does not apply to situations of internal disturbances
and tensions, such as riots, isolated and sporadic acts of violence or other
acts of a similar nature. It applies to armed conflicts that take place in the
territory of a State when there is protracted armed conflict between
governmental authorities and organized armed groups or between such
groups.
3. Nothing in paragraph 2 (c) and (e) shall affect the responsibility of a Government
to maintain or re-establish law and order in the State or to defend the unity and
territorial integrity of the State, by all legitimate means.
Article 9
Elements of Crimes
1. Elements of Crimes shall assist the Court in the interpretation and application of
articles 6, 7 and 8. They shall be adopted by a two-thirds majority of the members
of the Assembly of States Parties.
2. Amendments to the Elements of Crimes may be proposed by:
(a) Any State Party;
(b) The judges acting by an absolute majority;
(c) The Prosecutor.
Such amendments shall be adopted by a two-thirds majority of the members of
the Assembly of States Parties.
3. The Elements of Crimes and amendments thereto shall be consistent with this
Statute.
Article 10
Nothing in this Part shall be interpreted as limiting or prejudicing in any way existing or
developing rules of international law for purposes other than this Statute.
Article 11
Jurisdiction ratione temporis
1. The Court has jurisdiction only with respect to crimes committed after the entry
into force of this Statute.
2. If a State becomes a Party to this Statute after its entry into force, the Court may
exercise its jurisdiction only with respect to crimes committed after the entry into
force of this Statute for that State, unless that State has made a declaration under
article 12, paragraph 3.
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Article 12
Preconditions to the exercise of jurisdiction
1. A State which becomes a Party to this Statute thereby accepts the jurisdiction of
the Court with respect to the crimes referred to in article 5.
2. In the case of article 13, paragraph (a) or (c), the Court may exercise its jurisdiction
if one or more of the following States are Parties to this Statute or have accepted
the jurisdiction of the Court in accordance with paragraph 3:
(a) The State on the territory of which the conduct in question occurred or, if
the crime was committed on board a vessel or aircraft, the State of
registration of that vessel or aircraft;
(b) The State of which the person accused of the crime is a national.
3. If the acceptance of a State which is not a Party to this Statute is required under
paragraph 2, that State may, by declaration lodged with the Registrar, accept the
exercise of jurisdiction by the Court with respect to the crime in question. The
accepting State shall cooperate with the Court without any delay or exception in
accordance with Part 9.
Article 13
Exercise of jurisdiction
The Court may exercise its jurisdiction with respect to a crime referred to in article 5 in
accordance with the provisions of this Statute if:
(a) A situation in which one or more of such crimes appears to have been
committed is referred to the Prosecutor by a State Party in accordance with
article 14;
(b) A situation in which one or more of such crimes appears to have been
committed is referred to the Prosecutor by the Security Council acting
under Chapter VII of the Charter of the United Nations; or
(c) The Prosecutor has initiated an investigation in respect of such a crime in
accordance with article 15.
Article 14
Referral of a situation by a State Party
1. A State Party may refer to the Prosecutor a situation in which one or more crimes
within the jurisdiction of the Court appear to have been committed requesting the
Prosecutor to investigate the situation for the purpose of determining whether one
or more specific persons should be charged with the commission of such crimes.
2. As far as possible, a referral shall specify the relevant circumstances and be
accompanied by such supporting documentation as is available to the State
referring the situation.
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Article 15
Prosecutor
1. The Prosecutor may initiate investigations proprio motu on the basis of
information on crimes within the jurisdiction of the Court.
2. The Prosecutor shall analyse the seriousness of the information received. For this
purpose, he or she may seek additional information from States, organs of the
United Nations, intergovernmental or non-governmental organizations, or other
reliable sources that he or she deems appropriate, and may receive written or oral
testimony at the seat of the Court.
3. If the Prosecutor concludes that there is a reasonable basis to proceed with an
investigation, he or she shall submit to the Pre-Trial Chamber a request for
authorization of an investigation, together with any supporting material collected.
Victims may make representations to the Pre-Trial Chamber, in accordance with
the Rules of Procedure and Evidence.
4. If the Pre-Trial Chamber, upon examination of the request and the supporting
material, considers that there is a reasonable basis to proceed with an
investigation, and that the case appears to fall within the jurisdiction of the Court,
it shall authorize the commencement of the investigation, without prejudice to
subsequent determinations by the Court with regard to the jurisdiction and
admissibility of a case.
5. The refusal of the Pre-Trial Chamber to authorize the investigation shall not
preclude the presentation of a subsequent request by the Prosecutor based on new
facts or evidence regarding the same situation.
6. If, after the preliminary examination referred to in paragraphs 1 and 2, the
Prosecutor concludes that the information provided does not constitute a
reasonable basis for an investigation, he or she shall inform those who provided
the information. This shall not preclude the Prosecutor from considering further
information submitted to him or her regarding the same situation in the light of
new facts or evidence.
Article 16
Deferral of investigation or prosecution
No investigation or prosecution may be commenced or proceeded with under this Statute for a
period of 12 months after the Security Council, in a resolution adopted under Chapter VII of
the Charter of the United Nations, has requested the Court to that effect; that request may be
renewed by the Council under the same conditions.
Article 17
Issues of admissibility
1. Having regard to paragraph 10 of the Preamble and article 1, the Court shall
determine that a case is inadmissible where:
(a) The case is being investigated or prosecuted by a State which has
jurisdiction over it, unless the State is unwilling or unable genuinely to
carry out the investigation or prosecution;
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(b) The case has been investigated by a State which has jurisdiction over it
and the State has decided not to prosecute the person concerned, unless
the decision resulted from the unwillingness or inability of the State
genuinely to prosecute;
(c) The person concerned has already been tried for conduct which is the
subject of the complaint, and a trial by the Court is not permitted under
article 20, paragraph 3;
(d) The case is not of sufficient gravity to justify further action by the Court.
2. In order to determine unwillingness in a particular case, the Court shall consider,
having regard to the principles of due process recognized by international law,
whether one or more of the following exist, as applicable:
(a) The proceedings were or are being undertaken or the national decision
was made for the purpose of shielding the person concerned from criminal
responsibility for crimes within the jurisdiction of the Court referred to in
article 5;
(b) There has been an unjustified delay in the proceedings which in the
circumstances is inconsistent with an intent to bring the person concerned
to justice;
(c) The proceedings were not or are not being conducted independently or
impartially, and they were or are being conducted in a manner which, in
the circumstances, is inconsistent with an intent to bring the person
concerned to justice.
3. In order to determine inability in a particular case, the Court shall consider
whether, due to a total or substantial collapse or unavailability of its national
judicial system, the State is unable to obtain the accused or the necessary evidence
and testimony or otherwise unable to carry out its proceedings.
Article 18
Preliminary rulings regarding admissibility
1. When a situation has been referred to the Court pursuant to article 13 (a) and the
Prosecutor has determined that there would be a reasonable basis to commence an
investigation, or the Prosecutor initiates an investigation pursuant to articles 13 (c)
and 15, the Prosecutor shall notify all States Parties and those States which, taking
into account the information available, would normally exercise jurisdiction over
the crimes concerned. The Prosecutor may notify such States on a confidential
basis and, where the Prosecutor believes it necessary to protect persons, prevent
destruction of evidence or prevent the absconding of persons, may limit the scope
of the information provided to States.
2. Within one month of receipt of that notification, a State may inform the Court that
it is investigating or has investigated its nationals or others within its jurisdiction
with respect to criminal acts which may constitute crimes referred to in article 5
and which relate to the information provided in the notification to States. At the
request of that State, the Prosecutor shall defer to the State's investigation of
those persons unless the Pre-Trial Chamber, on the application of the Prosecutor,
decides to authorize the investigation.
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3. The Prosecutor's deferral to a State's investigation shall be open to review by the
Prosecutor six months after the date of deferral or at any time when there has been
a significant change of circumstances based on the State's unwillingness or
inability genuinely to carry out the investigation.
4. The State concerned or the Prosecutor may appeal to the Appeals Chamber
against a ruling of the Pre-Trial Chamber, in accordance with article 82. The appeal
may be heard on an expedited basis.
5. When the Prosecutor has deferred an investigation in accordance with paragraph
2, the Prosecutor may request that the State concerned periodically inform the
Prosecutor of the progress of its investigations and any subsequent prosecutions.
States Parties shall respond to such requests without undue delay.
6. Pending a ruling by the Pre-Trial Chamber, or at any time when the Prosecutor has
deferred an investigation under this article, the Prosecutor may, on an exceptional
basis, seek authority from the Pre-Trial Chamber to pursue necessary investigative
steps for the purpose of preserving evidence where there is a unique opportunity
to obtain important evidence or there is a significant risk that such evidence may
not be subsequently available.
7. A State which has challenged a ruling of the Pre-Trial Chamber under this article
may challenge the admissibility of a case under article 19 on the grounds of
additional significant facts or significant change of circumstances.
Article 19
Challenges to the jurisdiction of the Court or the admissibility of a case
1. The Court shall satisfy itself that it has jurisdiction in any case brought before it.
The Court may, on its own motion, determine the admissibility of a case in
accordance with article 17.
2. Challenges to the admissibility of a case on the grounds referred to in article 17 or
challenges to the jurisdiction of the Court may be made by:
(a) An accused or a person for whom a warrant of arrest or a summons to
appear has been issued under article 58;
(b) A State which has jurisdiction over a case, on the ground that it is
investigating or prosecuting the case or has investigated or prosecuted; or
(c) A State from which acceptance of jurisdiction is required under article 12.
3. The Prosecutor may seek a ruling from the Court regarding a question of
jurisdiction or admissibility. In proceedings with respect to jurisdiction or
admissibility, those who have referred the situation under article 13, as well as
victims, may also submit observations to the Court.
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4. The admissibility of a case or the jurisdiction of the Court may be challenged only
once by any person or State referred to in paragraph 2. The challenge shall take
place prior to or at the commencement of the trial. In exceptional circumstances,
the Court may grant leave for a challenge to be brought more than once or at a
time later than the commencement of the trial. Challenges to the admissibility of a
case, at the commencement of a trial, or subsequently with the leave of the Court,
may be based only on article 17, paragraph 1 (c).
5. A State referred to in paragraph 2 (b) and (c) shall make a challenge at the earliest
opportunity.
6. Prior to the confirmation of the charges, challenges to the admissibility of a case or
challenges to the jurisdiction of the Court shall be referred to the Pre-Trial
Chamber. After confirmation of the charges, they shall be referred to the
Trial Chamber. Decisions with respect to jurisdiction or admissibility may be
appealed to the Appeals Chamber in accordance with article 82.
7. If a challenge is made by a State referred to in paragraph 2 (b) or (c), the
Prosecutor shall suspend the investigation until such time as the Court makes a
determination in accordance with article 17.
8. Pending a ruling by the Court, the Prosecutor may seek authority from the Court:
(a) To pursue necessary investigative steps of the kind referred to in article 18,
paragraph 6;
(b) To take a statement or testimony from a witness or complete the collection
and examination of evidence which had begun prior to the making of the
challenge; and
(c) In cooperation with the relevant States, to prevent the absconding of
persons in respect of whom the Prosecutor has already requested a
warrant of arrest under article 58.
9. The making of a challenge shall not affect the validity of any act performed by the
Prosecutor or any order or warrant issued by the Court prior to the making of the
challenge.
10. If the Court has decided that a case is inadmissible under article 17, the Prosecutor
may submit a request for a review of the decision when he or she is fully satisfied
that new facts have arisen which negate the basis on which the case had
previously been found inadmissible under article 17.
11. If the Prosecutor, having regard to the matters referred to in article 17, defers an
investigation, the Prosecutor may request that the relevant State make available to
the Prosecutor information on the proceedings. That information shall, at the
request of the State concerned, be confidential. If the Prosecutor thereafter decides
to proceed with an investigation, he or she shall notify the State to which deferral
of the proceedings has taken place.
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Article 20
Ne bis in idem
1. Except as provided in this Statute, no person shall be tried before the Court with
respect to conduct which formed the basis of crimes for which the person has been
convicted or acquitted by the Court.
2. No person shall be tried by another court for a crime referred to in article 5 for
which that person has already been convicted or acquitted by the Court.
3. No person who has been tried by another court for conduct also proscribed under
article 6, 7 or 8 shall be tried by the Court with respect to the same conduct unless
the proceedings in the other court:
(a) Were for the purpose of shielding the person concerned from criminal
responsibility for crimes within the jurisdiction of the Court; or
(b) Otherwise were not conducted independently or impartially in accordance
with the norms of due process recognized by international law and were
conducted in a manner which, in the circumstances, was inconsistent with
an intent to bring the person concerned to justice.
Article 21
Applicable law
1. The Court shall apply:
(a) In the first place, this Statute, Elements of Crimes and its Rules of
Procedure and Evidence;
(b) In the second place, where appropriate, applicable treaties and the
principles and rules of international law, including the established
principles of the international law of armed conflict;
(c) Failing that, general principles of law derived by the Court from national
laws of legal systems of the world including, as appropriate, the national
laws of States that would normally exercise jurisdiction over the crime,
provided that those principles are not inconsistent with this Statute and
with international law and internationally recognized norms and
standards.
2. The Court may apply principles and rules of law as interpreted in its previous
decisions.
3. The application and interpretation of law pursuant to this article must be
consistent with internationally recognized human rights, and be without any
adverse distinction founded on grounds such as gender as defined in article 7,
paragraph 3, age, race, colour, language, religion or belief, political or other
opinion, national, ethnic or social origin, wealth, birth or other status.
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Part III General principles of Criminal Law
Article 22
Nullum crimen sine lege
1. A person shall not be criminally responsible under this Statute unless the conduct
in question constitutes, at the time it takes place, a crime within the jurisdiction of
the Court.
2. The definition of a crime shall be strictly construed and shall not be extended by
analogy. In case of ambiguity, the definition shall be interpreted in favour of the
person being investigated, prosecuted or convicted.
3. This article shall not affect the characterization of any conduct as criminal under
international law independently of this Statute.
Article 23
Nulla poena sine lege
A person convicted by the Court may be punished only in accordance with this Statute.
Article 24
Non-retroactivity ratione personae
1. No person shall be criminally responsible under this Statute for conduct prior to
the entry into force of the Statute.
2. In the event of a change in the law applicable to a given case prior to a final
judgement, the law more favourable to the person being investigated, prosecuted
or convicted shall apply.
Article 25
Individual criminal responsibility
1. The Court shall have jurisdiction over natural persons pursuant to this Statute.
2. A person who commits a crime within the jurisdiction of the Court shall be
individually responsible and liable for punishment in accordance with this Statute.
3. In accordance with this Statute, a person shall be criminally responsible and liable
for punishment for a crime within the jurisdiction of the Court if that person:
(a) Commits such a crime, whether as an individual, jointly with another or
through another person, regardless of whether that other person is
criminally responsible;
(b) Orders, solicits or induces the commission of such a crime which in fact
occurs or is attempted;
(c) For the purpose of facilitating the commission of such a crime, aids, abets
or otherwise assists in its commission or its attempted commission,
including providing the means for its commission;
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(d) In any other way contributes to the commission or attempted commission
of such a crime by a group of persons acting with a common purpose. Such
contribution shall be intentional and shall either:
(i) Be made with the aim of furthering the criminal activity or criminal
purpose of the group, where such activity or purpose involves the
commission of a crime within the jurisdiction of the Court; or
(ii) Be made in the knowledge of the intention of the group to commit
the crime;
(e) In respect of the crime of genocide, directly and publicly incites others to
commit genocide;
(f) Attempts to commit such a crime by taking action that commences its
execution by means of a substantial step, but the crime does not occur
because of circumstances independent of the person's intentions.
However, a person who abandons the effort to commit the crime or
otherwise prevents the completion of the crime shall not be liable for
punishment under this Statute for the attempt to commit that crime if that
person completely and voluntarily gave up the criminal purpose.
4. No provision in this Statute relating to individual criminal responsibility shall
affect the responsibility of States under international law.
Article 26
Exclusion of jurisdiction over persons under eighteen
The Court shall have no jurisdiction over any person who was under the age of 18 at the time
of the alleged commission of a crime.
Article 27
Irrelevance of official capacity
1. This Statute shall apply equally to all persons without any distinction based on
official capacity. In particular, official capacity as a Head of State or Government, a
member of a Government or parliament, an elected representative or a
government official shall in no case exempt a person from criminal responsibility
under this Statute, nor shall it, in and of itself, constitute a ground for reduction of
sentence.
2. Immunities or special procedural rules which may attach to the official capacity of
a person, whether under national or international law, shall not bar the Court from
exercising its jurisdiction over such a person.
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Article 28
Responsibility of commanders and other superiors
In addition to other grounds of criminal responsibility under this Statute for crimes within the
jurisdiction of the Court:
(a) A military commander or person effectively acting as a military
commander shall be criminally responsible for crimes within the
jurisdiction of the Court committed by forces under his or her effective
command and control, or effective authority and control as the case may
be, as a result of his or her failure to exercise control properly over such
forces, where:
(i) That military commander or person either knew or, owing to the
circumstances at the time, should have known that the forces
were committing or about to commit such crimes; and
(ii) That military commander or person failed to take all necessary
and reasonable measures within his or her power to prevent or
repress their commission or to submit the matter to the competent
authorities for investigation and prosecution.
(b) With respect to superior and subordinate relationships not described in
paragraph (a), a superior shall be criminally responsible for crimes within
the jurisdiction of the Court committed by subordinates under his or her
effective authority and control, as a result of his or her failure to exercise
control properly over such subordinates, where:
(i) The superior either knew, or consciously disregarded information
which clearly indicated, that the subordinates were committing or
about to commit such crimes;
(ii) The crimes concerned activities that were within the effective
responsibility and control of the superior; and
(iii) The superior failed to take all necessary and reasonable measures
within his or her power to prevent or repress their commission or to
submit the matter to the competent authorities for investigation and
prosecution.
Article 29
Non-applicability of statute of limitations
The crimes within the jurisdiction of the Court shall not be subject to any statute of
limitations.
Article 30
Mental element
1. Unless otherwise provided, a person shall be criminally responsible and liable for
punishment for a crime within the jurisdiction of the Court only if the material
elements are committed with intent and knowledge.
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2. For the purposes of this article, a person has intent where:
(a) In relation to conduct, that person means to engage in the conduct;
(b) In relation to a consequence, that person means to cause that consequence
or is aware that it will occur in the ordinary course of events.
3. For the purposes of this article, ‘knowledge’ means awareness that a circumstance
exists or a consequence will occur in the ordinary course of events. ‘Know’ and
‘knowingly’ shall be construed accordingly.
Article 31
Grounds for excluding criminal responsibility
1. In addition to other grounds for excluding criminal responsibility provided for in
this Statute, a person shall not be criminally responsible if, at the time of that
person's conduct:
(a) The person suffers from a mental disease or defect that destroys that
person's capacity to appreciate the unlawfulness or nature of his or her
conduct, or capacity to control his or her conduct to conform to the
requirements of law;
(b) The person is in a state of intoxication that destroys that person's capacity
to appreciate the unlawfulness or nature of his or her conduct, or capacity
to control his or her conduct to conform to the requirements of law, unless
the person has become voluntarily intoxicated under such circumstances
that the person knew, or disregarded the risk, that, as a result of the
intoxication, he or she was likely to engage in conduct constituting a crime
within the jurisdiction of the Court;
(c) The person acts reasonably to defend himself or herself or another person
or, in the case of war crimes, property which is essential for the survival of
the person or another person or property which is essential for
accomplishing a military mission, against an imminent and unlawful use
of force in a manner proportionate to the degree of danger to the person or
the other person or property protected. The fact that the person was
involved in a defensive operation conducted by forces shall not in itself
constitute a ground for excluding criminal responsibility under this
subparagraph;
(d) The conduct which is alleged to constitute a crime within the jurisdiction
of the Court has been caused by duress resulting from a threat of imminent
death or of continuing or imminent serious bodily harm against that
person or another person, and the person acts necessarily and reasonably
to avoid this threat, provided that the person does not intend to cause a
greater harm than the one sought to be avoided. Such a threat may either
be:
(i) Made by other persons; or
(ii) Constituted by other circumstances beyond that person's control.
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2. The Court shall determine the applicability of the grounds for excluding criminal
responsibility provided for in this Statute to the case before it.
3. At trial, the Court may consider a ground for excluding criminal responsibility
other than those referred to in paragraph 1 where such a ground is derived from
applicable law as set forth in article 21. The procedures relating to the
consideration of such a ground shall be provided for in the Rules of Procedure and
Evidence.
Article 32
Mistake of fact or mistake of law
1. A mistake of fact shall be a ground for excluding criminal responsibility only if it
negates the mental element required by the crime.
2. A mistake of law as to whether a particular type of conduct is a crime within the
jurisdiction of the Court shall not be a ground for excluding criminal responsibility.
A mistake of law may, however, be a ground for excluding criminal responsibility if
it negates the mental element required by such a crime, or as provided for in
article 33.
Article 33
Superior orders and prescription of law
1. The fact that a crime within the jurisdiction of the Court has been committed by a
person pursuant to an order of a Government or of a superior, whether military or
civilian, shall not relieve that person of criminal responsibility unless:
(a) The person was under a legal obligation to obey orders of the Government
or the superior in question;
(b) The person did not know that the order was unlawful; and
(c) The order was not manifestly unlawful.
2. For the purposes of this article, orders to commit genocide or crimes against
humanity are manifestly unlawful.
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Part IV Composition and administration of the Court
Article 34
Organs of the Court
The Court shall be composed of the following organs:
(a) The Presidency;
(b) An Appeals Division, a Trial Division and a Pre-Trial Division;
(c) The Office of the Prosecutor;
(d) The Registry.
Article 35
Service of judges
1. All judges shall be elected as full-time members of the Court and shall be available
to serve on that basis from the commencement of their terms of office.
2. The judges composing the Presidency shall serve on a full-time basis as soon as
they are elected.
3. The Presidency may, on the basis of the workload of the Court and in consultation
with its members, decide from time to time to what extent the remaining judges
shall be required to serve on a full-time basis. Any such arrangement shall be
without prejudice to the provisions of article 40.
4. The financial arrangements for judges not required to serve on a full-time basis
shall be made in accordance with article 49.
Article 36
Qualifications, nomination and election of judges
1. Subject to the provisions of paragraph 2, there shall be 18 judges of the Court.
2. (a) The Presidency, acting on behalf of the Court, may propose an increase in
the number of judges specified in paragraph 1, indicating the reasons why
this is considered necessary and appropriate. The Registrar shall promptly
circulate any such proposal to all States Parties.
(b) Any such proposal shall then be considered at a meeting of the Assembly
of States Parties to be convened in accordance with article 112. The
proposal shall be considered adopted if approved at the meeting by a vote
of two thirds of the members of the Assembly of States Parties and shall
enter into force at such time as decided by the Assembly of States Parties.
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(c) (i) Once a proposal for an increase in the number of judges has been
adopted under subparagraph (b), the election of the additional
judges shall take place at the next session of the Assembly of States
Parties in accordance with paragraphs 3 to 8, and article 37,
paragraph 2;
(ii) Once a proposal for an increase in the number of judges has
been adopted and brought into effect under subparagraphs (b)
and (c) (i), it shall be open to the Presidency at any time
thereafter, if the workload of the Court justifies it, to propose a
reduction in the number of judges, provided that the number of
judges shall not be reduced below that specified in paragraph 1.
The proposal shall be dealt with in accordance with the
procedure laid down in subparagraphs (a) and (b). In the event
that the proposal is adopted, the number of judges shall be
progressively decreased as the terms of office of serving judges
expire, until the necessary number has been reached.
3. (a) The judges shall be chosen from among persons of high moral character,
impartiality and integrity who possess the qualifications required in
their respective States for appointment to the highest judicial offices.
(b) Every candidate for election to the Court shall:
(i) Have established competence in criminal law and procedure, and
the necessary relevant experience, whether as judge, prosecutor,
advocate or in other similar capacity, in criminal proceedings; or
(ii) Have established competence in relevant areas of international law
such as international humanitarian law and the law of human rights,
and extensive experience in a professional legal capacity which is of
relevance to the judicial work of the Court;
(c) Every candidate for election to the Court shall have an excellent
knowledge of and be fluent in at least one of the working languages of the
Court.
4. (a) Nominations of candidates for election to the Court may be made by any
State Party to this Statute, and shall be made either:
(i) By the procedure for the nomination of candidates for appointment
to the highest judicial offices in the State in question; or
(ii) By the procedure provided for the nomination of candidates for the
International Court of Justice in the Statute of that Court.
Nominations shall be accompanied by a statement in the necessary detail
specifying how the candidate fulfils the requirements of paragraph 3.
(b) Each State Party may put forward one candidate for any given election
who need not necessarily be a national of that State Party but shall in any
case be a national of a State Party.
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(c) The Assembly of States Parties may decide to establish, if appropriate, an
Advisory Committee on nominations. In that event, the Committee's
composition and mandate shall be established by the Assembly of States
Parties.
5. For the purposes of the election, there shall be two lists of candidates:
List A containing the names of candidates with the qualifications specified in
paragraph 3 (b) (i); and
List B containing the names of candidates with the qualifications specified in
paragraph 3 (b) (ii).
A candidate with sufficient qualifications for both lists may choose on which list to
appear. At the first election to the Court, at least nine judges shall be elected from
list A and at least five judges from list B. Subsequent elections shall be so
organized as to maintain the equivalent proportion on the Court of judges
qualified on the two lists.
6. (a) The judges shall be elected by secret ballot at a meeting of the Assembly of
States Parties convened for that purpose under article 112. Subject to
paragraph 7, the persons elected to the Court shall be the 18 candidates
who obtain the highest number of votes and a two-thirds majority of the
States Parties present and voting.
(b) In the event that a sufficient number of judges is not elected on the first
ballot, successive ballots shall be held in accordance with the procedures
laid down in subparagraph (a) until the remaining places have been filled.
7. No two judges may be nationals of the same State. A person who, for the purposes
of membership of the Court, could be regarded as a national of more than one
State shall be deemed to be a national of the State in which that person ordinarily
exercises civil and political rights.
8. (a) The States Parties shall, in the selection of judges, take into account
the need, within the membership of the Court, for:
(i) The representation of the principal legal systems of the world;
(ii) Equitable geographical representation; and
(iii) A fair representation of female and male judges.
(b) States Parties shall also take into account the need to include judges with
legal expertise on specific issues, including, but not limited to, violence
against women or children.
9. (a) Subject to subparagraph (b), judges shall hold office for a term of nine
years and, subject to subparagraph (c) and to article 37, paragraph 2,
shall not be eligible for re-election.
(b) At the first election, one third of the judges elected shall be selected by lot
to serve for a term of three years; one third of the judges elected shall be
selected by lot to serve for a term of six years; and the remainder shall
serve for a term of nine years.
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(c) A judge who is selected to serve for a term of three years under
subparagraph (b) shall be eligible for re-election for a full term.
10. Notwithstanding paragraph 9, a judge assigned to a Trial or Appeals Chamber in
accordance with article 39 shall continue in office to complete any trial or appeal
the hearing of which has already commenced before that Chamber.
Article 37
Judicial vacancies
1. In the event of a vacancy, an election shall be held in accordance with article 36 to
fill the vacancy.
2. A judge elected to fill a vacancy shall serve for the remainder of the predecessor's
term and, if that period is three years or less, shall be eligible for re-election for a
full term under article 36.
Article 38
The Presidency
1. The President and the First and Second Vice-Presidents shall be elected by an
absolute majority of the judges. They shall each serve for a term of three years or
until the end of their respective terms of office as judges, whichever expires earlier.
They shall be eligible for re-election once.
2. The First Vice-President shall act in place of the President in the event that
the President is unavailable or disqualified. The Second Vice-President shall
act in place of the President in the event that both the President and the First
Vice-President are unavailable or disqualified.
3. The President, together with the First and Second Vice-Presidents, shall constitute
the Presidency, which shall be responsible for:
(a) The proper administration of the Court, with the exception of the Office of
the Prosecutor; and
(b) The other functions conferred upon it in accordance with this Statute.
4. In discharging its responsibility under paragraph 3 (a), the Presidency shall
coordinate with and seek the concurrence of the Prosecutor on all matters of
mutual concern.
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Article 39
Chambers
1. As soon as possible after the election of the judges, the Court shall organize itself
into the divisions specified in article 34, paragraph (b). The Appeals Division shall
be composed of the President and four other judges, the Trial Division of not less
than six judges and the Pre-Trial Division of not less than six judges. The
assignment of judges to divisions shall be based on the nature of the functions to
be performed by each division and the qualifications and experience of the judges
elected to the Court, in such a way that each division shall contain an appropriate
combination of expertise in criminal law and procedure and in international law.
The Trial and Pre-Trial Divisions shall be composed predominantly of judges with
criminal trial experience.
2. (a) The judicial functions of the Court shall be carried out in each
division by Chambers.
(b) (i) The Appeals Chamber shall be composed of all the judges of the
Appeals Division;
(ii) The functions of the Trial Chamber shall be carried out by three
judges of the Trial Division;
(iii) The functions of the Pre-Trial Chamber shall be carried out either by
three judges of the Pre-Trial Division or by a single judge of that
division in accordance with this Statute and the Rules of Procedure
and Evidence;
(c) Nothing in this paragraph shall preclude the simultaneous constitution of
more than one Trial Chamber or Pre-Trial Chamber when the efficient
management of the Court's workload so requires.
3. (a) Judges assigned to the Trial and Pre-Trial Divisions shall serve in those
divisions for a period of three years, and thereafter until the completion of
any case the hearing of which has already commenced in the division
concerned.
(b) Judges assigned to the Appeals Division shall serve in that division
for their entire term of office.
4. Judges assigned to the Appeals Division shall serve only in that division. Nothing
in this article shall, however, preclude the temporary attachment of judges from
the Trial Division to the Pre-Trial Division or vice versa, if the Presidency considers
that the efficient management of the Court's workload so requires, provided that
under no circumstances shall a judge who has participated in the pre-trial phase of
a case be eligible to sit on the Trial Chamber hearing that case.
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Article 40
Independence of the judges
1. The judges shall be independent in the performance of their functions.
2. Judges shall not engage in any activity which is likely to interfere with their
judicial functions or to affect confidence in their independence.
3. Judges required to serve on a full-time basis at the seat of the Court shall not
engage in any other occupation of a professional nature.
4. Any question regarding the application of paragraphs 2 and 3 shall be decided by
an absolute majority of the judges. Where any such question concerns an
individual judge, that judge shall not take part in the decision.
Article 41
Excusing and disqualification of judges
1. The Presidency may, at the request of a judge, excuse that judge from the exercise
of a function under this Statute, in accordance with the Rules of Procedure and
Evidence.
2. (a) A judge shall not participate in any case in which his or her impartiality
might reasonably be doubted on any ground. A judge shall be disqualified
from a case in accordance with this paragraph if, inter alia, that judge has
previously been involved in any capacity in that case before the Court or in
a related criminal case at the national level involving the person being
investigated or prosecuted. A judge shall also be disqualified on such other
grounds as may be provided for in the Rules of Procedure and Evidence.
(b) The Prosecutor or the person being investigated or prosecuted may
request the disqualification of a judge under this paragraph.
(c) Any question as to the disqualification of a judge shall be decided by an
absolute majority of the judges. The challenged judge shall be entitled to
present his or her comments on the matter, but shall not take part in the
decision.
Article 42
The Office of the Prosecutor
1. The Office of the Prosecutor shall act independently as a separate organ of the
Court. It shall be responsible for receiving referrals and any substantiated
information on crimes within the jurisdiction of the Court, for examining them and
for conducting investigations and prosecutions before the Court. A member of the
Office shall not seek or act on instructions from any external source.
2. The Office shall be headed by the Prosecutor. The Prosecutor shall have full
authority over the management and administration of the Office, including the
staff, facilities and other resources thereof. The Prosecutor shall be assisted by one
or more Deputy Prosecutors, who shall be entitled to carry out any of the acts
required of the Prosecutor under this Statute. The Prosecutor and the Deputy
Prosecutors shall be of different nationalities. They shall serve on a full-time basis.
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3. The Prosecutor and the Deputy Prosecutors shall be persons of high moral
character, be highly competent in and have extensive practical experience in the
prosecution or trial of criminal cases. They shall have an excellent knowledge of
and be fluent in at least one of the working languages of the Court.
4. The Prosecutor shall be elected by secret ballot by an absolute majority of the
members of the Assembly of States Parties. The Deputy Prosecutors shall be
elected in the same way from a list of candidates provided by the Prosecutor. The
Prosecutor shall nominate three candidates for each position of Deputy Prosecutor
to be filled. Unless a shorter term is decided upon at the time of their election, the
Prosecutor and the Deputy Prosecutors shall hold office for a term of nine years
and shall not be eligible for re-election.
5. Neither the Prosecutor nor a Deputy Prosecutor shall engage in any activity which
is likely to interfere with his or her prosecutorial functions or to affect confidence
in his or her independence. They shall not engage in any other occupation of a
professional nature.
6. The Presidency may excuse the Prosecutor or a Deputy Prosecutor, at his or her
request, from acting in a particular case.
7. Neither the Prosecutor nor a Deputy Prosecutor shall participate in any matter in
which their impartiality might reasonably be doubted on any ground. They shall
be disqualified from a case in accordance with this paragraph if, inter alia, they
have previously been involved in any capacity in that case before the Court or in a
related criminal case at the national level involving the person being investigated
or prosecuted.
8. Any question as to the disqualification of the Prosecutor or a Deputy Prosecutor
shall be decided by the Appeals Chamber.
(a) The person being investigated or prosecuted may at any time request the
disqualification of the Prosecutor or a Deputy Prosecutor on the grounds
set out in this article;
(b) The Prosecutor or the Deputy Prosecutor, as appropriate, shall be entitled
to present his or her comments on the matter.
9. The Prosecutor shall appoint advisers with legal expertise on specific issues,
including, but not limited to, sexual and gender violence and violence against
children.
Article 43
The Registry
1. The Registry shall be responsible for the non-judicial aspects of the administration
and servicing of the Court, without prejudice to the functions and powers of the
Prosecutor in accordance with article 42.
2. The Registry shall be headed by the Registrar, who shall be the principal
administrative officer of the Court. The Registrar shall exercise his or her functions
under the authority of the President of the Court.
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3. The Registrar and the Deputy Registrar shall be persons of high moral character,
be highly competent and have an excellent knowledge of and be fluent in at least
one of the working languages of the Court.
4. The judges shall elect the Registrar by an absolute majority by secret ballot, taking
into account any recommendation by the Assembly of States Parties. If the need
arises and upon the recommendation of the Registrar, the judges shall elect, in the
same manner, a Deputy Registrar.
5. The Registrar shall hold office for a term of five years, shall be eligible for reelection
once and shall serve on a full-time basis. The Deputy Registrar shall hold
office for a term of five years or such shorter term as may be decided upon by an
absolute majority of the judges, and may be elected on the basis that the Deputy
Registrar shall be called upon to serve as required.
6. The Registrar shall set up a Victims and Witnesses Unit within the Registry. This
Unit shall provide, in consultation with the Office of the Prosecutor, protective
measures and security arrangements, counselling and other appropriate assistance
for witnesses, victims who appear before the Court, and others who are at risk on
account of testimony given by such witnesses. The Unit shall include staff with
expertise in trauma, including trauma related to crimes of sexual violence.
Article 44
Staff
1. The Prosecutor and the Registrar shall appoint such qualified staff as may be
required to their respective offices. In the case of the Prosecutor, this shall include
the appointment of investigators.
2. In the employment of staff, the Prosecutor and the Registrar shall ensure the
highest standards of efficiency, competency and integrity, and shall have regard,
mutatis mutandis, to the criteria set forth in article 36, paragraph 8.
3. The Registrar, with the agreement of the Presidency and the Prosecutor, shall
propose Staff Regulations which include the terms and conditions upon which the
staff of the Court shall be appointed, remunerated and dismissed. The Staff
Regulations shall be approved by the Assembly of States Parties.
4. The Court may, in exceptional circumstances, employ the expertise of gratis
personnel offered by States Parties, intergovernmental organizations or nongovernmental
organizations to assist with the work of any of the organs
of the Court. The Prosecutor may accept any such offer on behalf of the Office of
the Prosecutor. Such gratis personnel shall be employed in accordance with
guidelines to be established by the Assembly of States Parties.
Article 45
Solemn undertaking
Before taking up their respective duties under this Statute, the judges, the
Prosecutor, the Deputy Prosecutors, the Registrar and the Deputy Registrar shall
each make a solemn undertaking in open court to exercise his or her respective
functions impartially and conscientiously.
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Article 46
Removal from office
1. A judge, the Prosecutor, a Deputy Prosecutor, the Registrar or the Deputy Registrar
shall be removed from office if a decision to this effect is made in accordance with
paragraph 2, in cases where that person:
(a) Is found to have committed serious misconduct or a serious breach of his
or her duties under this Statute, as provided for in the Rules of Procedure
and Evidence; or
(b) Is unable to exercise the functions required by this Statute.
2. A decision as to the removal from office of a judge, the Prosecutor or a Deputy
Prosecutor under paragraph 1 shall be made by the Assembly of States Parties, by
secret ballot:
(a) In the case of a judge, by a two-thirds majority of the States Parties upon a
recommendation adopted by a two-thirds majority of the other judges;
(b) In the case of the Prosecutor, by an absolute majority of the States Parties;
(c) In the case of a Deputy Prosecutor, by an absolute majority of the States
Parties upon the recommendation of the Prosecutor.
3. A decision as to the removal from office of the Registrar or Deputy Registrar shall
be made by an absolute majority of the judges.
4. A judge, Prosecutor, Deputy Prosecutor, Registrar or Deputy Registrar whose
conduct or ability to exercise the functions of the office as required by this Statute
is challenged under this article shall have full opportunity to present and receive
evidence and to make submissions in accordance with the Rules of Procedure and
Evidence. The person in question shall not otherwise participate in the
consideration of the matter.
Article 47
Disciplinary measures
A judge, Prosecutor, Deputy Prosecutor, Registrar or Deputy Registrar who has committed
misconduct of a less serious nature than that set out in article 46, paragraph 1, shall be subject
to disciplinary measures, in accordance with the Rules of Procedure and Evidence.
Article 48
Privileges and immunities
1. The Court shall enjoy in the territory of each State Party such privileges and
immunities as are necessary for the fulfilment of its purposes.
2. The judges, the Prosecutor, the Deputy Prosecutors and the Registrar shall, when
engaged on or with respect to the business of the Court, enjoy the same privileges
and immunities as are accorded to heads of diplomatic missions and shall, after
the expiry of their terms of office, continue to be accorded immunity from legal
process of every kind in respect of words spoken or written and acts performed by
them in their official capacity.
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3. The Deputy Registrar, the staff of the Office of the Prosecutor and the staff
of the Registry shall enjoy the privileges and immunities and facilities necessary
for the performance of their functions, in accordance with the agreement on the
privileges and immunities of the Court.
4. Counsel, experts, witnesses or any other person required to be present at the seat
of the Court shall be accorded such treatment as is necessary for the proper
functioning of the Court, in accordance with the agreement on the privileges and
immunities of the Court.
5. The privileges and immunities of:
(a) A judge or the Prosecutor may be waived by an absolute majority of the
judges;
(b) The Registrar may be waived by the Presidency;
(c) The Deputy Prosecutors and staff of the Office of the Prosecutor may be
waived by the Prosecutor;
(d) The Deputy Registrar and staff of the Registry may be waived by the
Registrar.
Article 49
Salaries, allowances and expenses
The judges, the Prosecutor, the Deputy Prosecutors, the Registrar and the Deputy Registrar
shall receive such salaries, allowances and expenses as may be decided upon by the Assembly
of States Parties. These salaries and allowances shall not be reduced during their terms of
office.
Article 50
Official and working languages
1. The official languages of the Court shall be Arabic, Chinese, English, French,
Russian and Spanish. The judgements of the Court, as well as other decisions
resolving fundamental issues before the Court, shall be published in the official
languages. The Presidency shall, in accordance with the criteria established by the
Rules of Procedure and Evidence, determine which decisions may be considered as
resolving fundamental issues for the purposes of this paragraph.
2. The working languages of the Court shall be English and French. The Rules of
Procedure and Evidence shall determine the cases in which other official
languages may be used as working languages.
3. At the request of any party to a proceeding or a State allowed to intervene in a
proceeding, the Court shall authorize a language other than English or French to
be used by such a party or State, provided that the Court considers such
authorization to be adequately justified.
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Article 51
Rules of Procedure and Evidence
1. The Rules of Procedure and Evidence shall enter into force upon adoption by a
two-thirds majority of the members of the Assembly of States Parties.
2. Amendments to the Rules of Procedure and Evidence may be proposed by:
(a) Any State Party;
(b) The judges acting by an absolute majority; or
(c) The Prosecutor.
Such amendments shall enter into force upon adoption by a two-thirds majority of
the members of the Assembly of States Parties.
3. After the adoption of the Rules of Procedure and Evidence, in urgent cases where
the Rules do not provide for a specific situation before the Court, the judges may,
by a two-thirds majority, draw up provisional Rules to be applied until adopted,
amended or rejected at the next ordinary or special session of the Assembly of
States Parties.
4. The Rules of Procedure and Evidence, amendments thereto and any provisional
Rule shall be consistent with this Statute. Amendments to the Rules of Procedure
and Evidence as well as provisional Rules shall not be applied retroactively to the
detriment of the person who is being investigated or prosecuted or who has been
convicted.
5. In the event of conflict between the Statute and the Rules of Procedure and
Evidence, the Statute shall prevail.
Article 52
Regulations of the Court
1. The judges shall, in accordance with this Statute and the Rules of Procedure and
Evidence, adopt, by an absolute majority, the Regulations of the Court necessary
for its routine functioning.
2. The Prosecutor and the Registrar shall be consulted in the elaboration of the
Regulations and any amendments thereto.
3. The Regulations and any amendments thereto shall take effect upon adoption
unless otherwise decided by the judges. Immediately upon adoption, they shall be
circulated to States Parties for comments. If within six months there are no
objections from a majority of States Parties, they shall remain in force.
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Part V Investigation and prosecution
Article 53
Initiation of an investigation
1. The Prosecutor shall, having evaluated the information made available to him or
her, initiate an investigation unless he or she determines that there is no
reasonable basis to proceed under this Statute. In deciding whether to initiate an
investigation, the Prosecutor shall consider whether:
(a) The information available to the Prosecutor provides a reasonable basis to
believe that a crime within the jurisdiction of the Court has been or is
being committed;
(b) The case is or would be admissible under article 17; and
(c) Taking into account the gravity of the crime and the interests of victims,
there are nonetheless substantial reasons to believe that an investigation
would not serve the interests of justice.
If the Prosecutor determines that there is no reasonable basis to proceed and his or
her determination is based solely on subparagraph (c) above, he or she shall
inform the Pre-Trial Chamber.
2. If, upon investigation, the Prosecutor concludes that there is not a sufficient basis
for a prosecution because:
(a) There is not a sufficient legal or factual basis to seek a warrant or
summons under article 58;
(b) The case is inadmissible under article 17; or
(c) A prosecution is not in the interests of justice, taking into account
all the circumstances, including the gravity of the crime, the interests
of victims and the age or infirmity of the alleged perpetrator, and
his or her role in the alleged crime; the Prosecutor shall inform
the Pre-Trial Chamber and the State making a referral under article 14
or the Security Council in a case under article 13, paragraph (b), of his
or her conclusion and the reasons for the conclusion.
3. (a) At the request of the State making a referral under article 14 or the
Security Council under article 13, paragraph (b), the Pre-Trial Chamber
may review a decision of the Prosecutor under paragraph 1 or 2 not to
proceed and may request the Prosecutor to reconsider that decision.
(b) In addition, the Pre-Trial Chamber may, on its own initiative, review
a decision of the Prosecutor not to proceed if it is based solely on
paragraph 1 (c) or 2 (c). In such a case, the decision of the Prosecutor shall
be effective only if confirmed by the Pre-Trial Chamber.
4. The Prosecutor may, at any time, reconsider a decision whether to initiate an
investigation or prosecution based on new facts or information.
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Article 54
Duties and powers of the Prosecutor with respect to investigations
1. The Prosecutor shall:
(a) In order to establish the truth, extend the investigation to cover all
facts and evidence relevant to an assessment of whether there is
criminal responsibility under this Statute, and, in doing so, investigate
incriminating and exonerating circumstances equally;
(b) Take appropriate measures to ensure the effective investigation and
prosecution of crimes within the jurisdiction of the Court, and in doing so,
respect the interests and personal circumstances of victims and witnesses,
including age, gender as defined in article 7, paragraph 3, and health, and
take into account the nature of the crime, in particular where it involves
sexual violence, gender violence or violence against children; and
(c) Fully respect the rights of persons arising under this Statute.
2. The Prosecutor may conduct investigations on the territory of a State:
(a) In accordance with the provisions of Part 9; or
(b) As authorized by the Pre-Trial Chamber under article 57, paragraph 3 (d).
3. The Prosecutor may:
(a) Collect and examine evidence;
(b) Request the presence of and question persons being investigated, victims
and witnesses;
(c) Seek the cooperation of any State or intergovernmental organization or
arrangement in accordance with its respective competence and/or
mandate;
(d) Enter into such arrangements or agreements, not inconsistent with this
Statute, as may be necessary to facilitate the cooperation of a State,
intergovernmental organization or person;
(e) Agree not to disclose, at any stage of the proceedings, documents or
information that the Prosecutor obtains on the condition of confidentiality
and solely for the purpose of generating new evidence, unless the provider
of the information consents; and
(f) Take necessary measures, or request that necessary measures be taken, to
ensure the confidentiality of information, the protection of any person or
the preservation of evidence.
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Article 55
Rights of persons during an investigation
1. In respect of an investigation under this Statute, a person:
(a) Shall not be compelled to incriminate himself or herself or to confess guilt;
(b) Shall not be subjected to any form of coercion, duress or threat, to torture
or to any other form of cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or
punishment;
(c) Shall, if questioned in a language other than a language the person fully
understands and speaks, have, free of any cost, the assistance of a
competent interpreter and such translations as are necessary to meet the
requirements of fairness; and
(d) Shall not be subjected to arbitrary arrest or detention, and shall not be
deprived of his or her liberty except on such grounds and in accordance
with such procedures as are established in this Statute.
2. Where there are grounds to believe that a person has committed a crime within
the jurisdiction of the Court and that person is about to be questioned either by
the Prosecutor, or by national authorities pursuant to a request made under Part 9,
that person shall also have the following rights of which he or she shall be
informed prior to being questioned:
(a) To be informed, prior to being questioned, that there are grounds to
believe that he or she has committed a crime within the jurisdiction of the
Court;
(b) To remain silent, without such silence being a consideration in the
determination of guilt or innocence;
(c) To have legal assistance of the person's choosing, or, if the person does not
have legal assistance, to have legal assistance assigned to him or her, in
any case where the interests of justice so require, and without payment by
the person in any such case if the person does not have sufficient means to
pay for it; and
(d) To be questioned in the presence of counsel unless the person has
voluntarily waived his or her right to counsel.
Article 56
Role of the Pre-Trial Chamber in relation to a unique investigative
opportunity
1. (a) Where the Prosecutor considers an investigation to present a unique
opportunity to take testimony or a statement from a witness or to examine,
collect or test evidence, which may not be available subsequently for the
purposes of a trial, the Prosecutor shall so inform the Pre-Trial Chamber.
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(b) In that case, the Pre-Trial Chamber may, upon request of the Prosecutor,
take such measures as may be necessary to ensure the efficiency and
integrity of the proceedings and, in particular, to protect the rights of the
defence.
(c) Unless the Pre-Trial Chamber orders otherwise, the Prosecutor shall
provide the relevant information to the person who has been arrested or
appeared in response to a summons in connection with the investigation
referred to in subparagraph (a), in order that he or she may be heard on
the matter.
2. The measures referred to in paragraph 1 (b) may include:
(a) Making recommendations or orders regarding procedures to be followed;
(b) Directing that a record be made of the proceedings;
(c) Appointing an expert to assist;
(d) Authorizing counsel for a person who has been arrested, or appeared
before the Court in response to a summons, to participate, or where there
has not yet been such an arrest or appearance or counsel has not been
designated, appointing another counsel to attend and represent the
interests of the defence;
(e) Naming one of its members or, if necessary, another available judge of the
Pre-Trial or Trial Division to observe and make recommendations or orders
regarding the collection and preservation of evidence and the questioning
of persons;
(f) Taking such other action as may be necessary to collect or preserve
evidence.
3. (a) Where the Prosecutor has not sought measures pursuant to this article but
the Pre-Trial Chamber considers that such measures are required to
preserve evidence that it deems would be essential for the defence at trial,
it shall consult with the Prosecutor as to whether there is good reason for
the Prosecutor's failure to request the measures. If upon consultation, the
Pre-Trial Chamber concludes that the Prosecutor's failure to request such
measures is unjustified, the Pre-Trial Chamber may take such measures on
its own initiative.
(b) A decision of the Pre-Trial Chamber to act on its own initiative under this
paragraph may be appealed by the Prosecutor. The appeal shall be heard
on an expedited basis.
4. The admissibility of evidence preserved or collected for trial pursuant to this
article, or the record thereof, shall be governed at trial by article 69, and given such
weight as determined by the Trial Chamber.
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Article 57
Functions and powers of the Pre-Trial Chamber
1. Unless otherwise provided in this Statute, the Pre-Trial Chamber shall exercise its
functions in accordance with the provisions of this article.
2. (a) Orders or rulings of the Pre-Trial Chamber issued under articles 15, 18, 19,
54, paragraph 2, 61, paragraph 7, and 72 must be concurred in by a
majority of its judges.
(b) In all other cases, a single judge of the Pre-Trial Chamber may exercise the
functions provided for in this Statute, unless otherwise provided for in
the Rules of Procedure and Evidence or by a majority of the Pre-Trial
Chamber.
3. In addition to its other functions under this Statute, the Pre-Trial Chamber may:
(a) At the request of the Prosecutor, issue such orders and warrants as may be
required for the purposes of an investigation;
(b) Upon the request of a person who has been arrested or has appeared
pursuant to a summons under article 58, issue such orders, including
measures such as those described in article 56, or seek such cooperation
pursuant to Part 9 as may be necessary to assist the person in the
preparation of his or her defence;
(c) Where necessary, provide for the protection and privacy of victims and
witnesses, the preservation of evidence, the protection of persons who
have been arrested or appeared in response to a summons, and the
protection of national security information;
(d) Authorize the Prosecutor to take specific investigative steps within the
territory of a State Party without having secured the cooperation of that
State under Part 9 if, whenever possible having regard to the views of the
State concerned, the Pre-Trial Chamber has determined in that case that
the State is clearly unable to execute a request for cooperation due to the
unavailability of any authority or any component of its judicial system
competent to execute the request for cooperation under Part 9;
(e) Where a warrant of arrest or a summons has been issued under article 58,
and having due regard to the strength of the evidence and the rights of the
parties concerned, as provided for in this Statute and the Rules of
Procedure and Evidence, seek the cooperation of States pursuant to article
93, paragraph 1 (k), to take protective measures for the purpose of
forfeiture, in particular for the ultimate benefit of victims.
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Article 58
Issuance by the Pre-Trial Chamber of a warrant of arrest or a
summons to appear
1. At any time after the initiation of an investigation, the Pre-Trial Chamber shall, on
the application of the Prosecutor, issue a warrant of arrest of a person if, having
examined the application and the evidence or other information submitted by the
Prosecutor, it is satisfied that:
(a) There are reasonable grounds to believe that the person has committed a
crime within the jurisdiction of the Court; and
(b) The arrest of the person appears necessary:
(i) To ensure the person's appearance at trial;
(ii) To ensure that the person does not obstruct or endanger the
investigation or the court proceedings; or
(iii) Where applicable, to prevent the person from continuing with the
commission of that crime or a related crime which is within the
jurisdiction of the Court and which arises out of the same
circumstances.
2. The application of the Prosecutor shall contain:
(a) The name of the person and any other relevant identifying information;
(b) A specific reference to the crimes within the jurisdiction of the Court
which the person is alleged to have committed;
(c) A concise statement of the facts which are alleged to constitute those
crimes;
(d) A summary of the evidence and any other information which establish
reasonable grounds to believe that the person committed those crimes;
and
(e) The reason why the Prosecutor believes that the arrest of the person is
necessary.
3. The warrant of arrest shall contain:
(a) The name of the person and any other relevant identifying information;
(b) A specific reference to the crimes within the jurisdiction of the Court for
which the person's arrest is sought; and
(c) A concise statement of the facts which are alleged to constitute those
crimes.
4. The warrant of arrest shall remain in effect until otherwise ordered by the Court.
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5. On the basis of the warrant of arrest, the Court may request the provisional arrest
or the arrest and surrender of the person under Part 9.
6. The Prosecutor may request the Pre-Trial Chamber to amend the warrant of arrest
by modifying or adding to the crimes specified therein. The Pre-Trial Chamber
shall so amend the warrant if it is satisfied that there are reasonable grounds to
believe that the person committed the modified or additional crimes.
7. As an alternative to seeking a warrant of arrest, the Prosecutor may submit an
application requesting that the Pre-Trial Chamber issue a summons for the person
to appear. If the Pre-Trial Chamber is satisfied that there are reasonable grounds to
believe that the person committed the crime alleged and that a summons is
sufficient to ensure the person's appearance, it shall issue the summons, with or
without conditions restricting liberty (other than detention) if provided for by
national law, for the person to appear. The summons shall contain:
(a) The name of the person and any other relevant identifying information;
(b) The specified date on which the person is to appear;
(c) A specific reference to the crimes within the jurisdiction of the Court
which the person is alleged to have committed; and
(d) A concise statement of the facts which are alleged to constitute the crime.
The summons shall be served on the person.
Article 59
Arrest proceedings in the custodial State
1. A State Party which has received a request for provisional arrest or for arrest and
surrender shall immediately take steps to arrest the person in question in
accordance with its laws and the provisions of Part 9.
2. A person arrested shall be brought promptly before the competent judicial
authority in the custodial State which shall determine, in accordance with the law
of that State, that:
(a) The warrant applies to that person;
(b) The person has been arrested in accordance with the proper process; and
(c) The person's rights have been respected.
3. The person arrested shall have the right to apply to the competent authority in the
custodial State for interim release pending surrender.
4. In reaching a decision on any such application, the competent authority in the
custodial State shall consider whether, given the gravity of the alleged crimes,
there are urgent and exceptional circumstances to justify interim release and
whether necessary safeguards exist to ensure that the custodial State can fulfil its
duty to surrender the person to the Court. It shall not be open to the competent
authority of the custodial State to consider whether the warrant of arrest was
properly issued in accordance with article 58, paragraph 1 (a) and (b).
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5. The Pre-Trial Chamber shall be notified of any request for interim release and shall
make recommendations to the competent authority in the custodial State. The
competent authority in the custodial State shall give full consideration to such
recommendations, including any recommendations on measures to prevent the
escape of the person, before rendering its decision.
6. If the person is granted interim release, the Pre-Trial Chamber may request
periodic reports on the status of the interim release.
7. Once ordered to be surrendered by the custodial State, the person shall be
delivered to the Court as soon as possible.
Article 60
Initial proceedings before the Court
1. Upon the surrender of the person to the Court, or the person's appearance before
the Court voluntarily or pursuant to a summons, the Pre-Trial Chamber shall
satisfy itself that the person has been informed of the crimes which he or she is
alleged to have committed, and of his or her rights under this Statute, including
the right to apply for interim release pending trial.
2. A person subject to a warrant of arrest may apply for interim release pending trial.
If the Pre-Trial Chamber is satisfied that the conditions set forth in article 58,
paragraph 1, are met, the person shall continue to be detained. If it is not so
satisfied, the Pre-Trial Chamber shall release the person, with or without
conditions.
3. The Pre-Trial Chamber shall periodically review its ruling on the release or
detention of the person, and may do so at any time on the request of the
Prosecutor or the person. Upon such review, it may modify its ruling as to
detention, release or conditions of release, if it is satisfied that changed
circumstances so require.
4. The Pre-Trial Chamber shall ensure that a person is not detained for an
unreasonable period prior to trial due to inexcusable delay by the Prosecutor. If
such delay occurs, the Court shall consider releasing the person, with or without
conditions.
5. If necessary, the Pre-Trial Chamber may issue a warrant of arrest to secure the
presence of a person who has been released.
Article 61
Confirmation of the charges before trial
1. Subject to the provisions of paragraph 2, within a reasonable time after the
person's surrender or voluntary appearance before the Court, the Pre-Trial
Chamber shall hold a hearing to confirm the charges on which the Prosecutor
intends to seek trial. The hearing shall be held in the presence of the
Prosecutor and the person charged, as well as his or her counsel.
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2. The Pre-Trial Chamber may, upon request of the Prosecutor or on its own motion,
hold a hearing in the absence of the person charged to confirm the charges on
which the Prosecutor intends to seek trial when the person has:
(a) Waived his or her right to be present; or
(b) Fled or cannot be found and all reasonable steps have been taken to secure
his or her appearance before the Court and to inform the person of the
charges and that a hearing to confirm those charges will be held.
In that case, the person shall be represented by counsel where the Pre-Trial
Chamber determines that it is in the interests of justice.
3. Within a reasonable time before the hearing, the person shall:
(a) Be provided with a copy of the document containing the charges on which
the Prosecutor intends to bring the person to trial; and
(b) Be informed of the evidence on which the Prosecutor intends to rely at the
hearing.
The Pre-Trial Chamber may issue orders regarding the disclosure of information
for the purposes of the hearing.
4. Before the hearing, the Prosecutor may continue the investigation and may amend
or withdraw any charges. The person shall be given reasonable notice before the
hearing of any amendment to or withdrawal of charges. In case of a withdrawal of
charges, the Prosecutor shall notify the Pre-Trial Chamber of the reasons for the
withdrawal.
5. At the hearing, the Prosecutor shall support each charge with sufficient evidence
to establish substantial grounds to believe that the person committed the crime
charged. The Prosecutor may rely on documentary or summary evidence and need
not call the witnesses expected to testify at the trial.
6. At the hearing, the person may:
(a) Object to the charges;
(b) Challenge the evidence presented by the Prosecutor; and
(c) Present evidence.
7. The Pre-Trial Chamber shall, on the basis of the hearing, determine whether there
is sufficient evidence to establish substantial grounds to believe that the person
committed each of the crimes charged. Based on its determination, the Pre-Trial
Chamber shall:
(a) Confirm those charges in relation to which it has determined that there is
sufficient evidence, and commit the person to a Trial Chamber for trial on
the charges as confirmed;
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(b) Decline to confirm those charges in relation to which it has determined
that there is insufficient evidence;
(c) Adjourn the hearing and request the Prosecutor to consider:
(i) Providing further evidence or conducting further investigation with
respect to a particular charge; or
(ii) Amending a charge because the evidence submitted appears to
establish a different crime within the jurisdiction of the Court.
8. Where the Pre-Trial Chamber declines to confirm a charge, the Prosecutor shall
not be precluded from subsequently requesting its confirmation if the request is
supported by additional evidence.
9. After the charges are confirmed and before the trial has begun, the Prosecutor may,
with the permission of the Pre-Trial Chamber and after notice to the accused,
amend the charges. If the Prosecutor seeks to add additional charges or to
substitute more serious charges, a hearing under this article to confirm those
charges must be held. After commencement of the trial, the Prosecutor may, with
the permission of the Trial Chamber, withdraw the charges.
10. Any warrant previously issued shall cease to have effect with respect to any
charges which have not been confirmed by the Pre-Trial Chamber or which have
been withdrawn by the Prosecutor.
11. Once the charges have been confirmed in accordance with this article, the
Presidency shall constitute a Trial Chamber which, subject to paragraph 9 and to
article 64, paragraph 4, shall be responsible for the conduct of subsequent
proceedings and may exercise any function of the Pre-Trial Chamber that is
relevant and capable of application in those proceedings.
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Part VI The trial
Article 62
Place of trial
Unless otherwise decided, the place of the trial shall be the seat of the Court.
Article 63
Trial in the presence of the accused
1. The accused shall be present during the trial.
2. If the accused, being present before the Court, continues to disrupt the trial, the
Trial Chamber may remove the accused and shall make provision for him or her to
observe the trial and instruct counsel from outside the courtroom, through the use
of communications technology, if required. Such measures shall be taken only in
exceptional circumstances after other reasonable alternatives have proved
inadequate, and only for such duration as is strictly required.
Article 64
Functions and powers of the Trial Chamber
1. The functions and powers of the Trial Chamber set out in this article shall be
exercised in accordance with this Statute and the Rules of Procedure and Evidence.
2. The Trial Chamber shall ensure that a trial is fair and expeditious and is conducted
with full respect for the rights of the accused and due regard for the protection of
victims and witnesses.
3. Upon assignment of a case for trial in accordance with this Statute, the Trial
Chamber assigned to deal with the case shall:
(a) Confer with the parties and adopt such procedures as are necessary to
facilitate the fair and expeditious conduct of the proceedings;
(b) Determine the language or languages to be used at trial; and
(c) Subject to any other relevant provisions of this Statute, provide for
disclosure of documents or information not previously disclosed,
sufficiently in advance of the commencement of the trial to enable
adequate preparation for trial.
4. The Trial Chamber may, if necessary for its effective and fair functioning, refer
preliminary issues to the Pre-Trial Chamber or, if necessary, to another available
judge of the Pre-Trial Division.
5. Upon notice to the parties, the Trial Chamber may, as appropriate, direct that there
be joinder or severance in respect of charges against more than one accused.
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6. In performing its functions prior to trial or during the course of a trial, the Trial
Chamber may, as necessary:
(a) Exercise any functions of the Pre-Trial Chamber referred to in article 61,
paragraph 11;
(b) Require the attendance and testimony of witnesses and production of
documents and other evidence by obtaining, if necessary, the assistance of
States as provided in this Statute;
(c) Provide for the protection of confidential information;
(d) Order the production of evidence in addition to that already collected prior
to the trial or presented during the trial by the parties;
(e) Provide for the protection of the accused, witnesses and victims; and
(f) Rule on any other relevant matters.
7. The trial shall be held in public. The Trial Chamber may, however, determine that
special circumstances require that certain proceedings be in closed session for the
purposes set forth in article 68, or to protect confidential or sensitive information
to be given in evidence.
8. (a) At the commencement of the trial, the Trial Chamber shall have read to
the accused the charges previously confirmed by the Pre-Trial Chamber.
The Trial Chamber shall satisfy itself that the accused understands the
nature of the charges. It shall afford him or her the opportunity to make an
admission of guilt in accordance with article 65 or to plead not guilty.
(b) At the trial, the presiding judge may give directions for the conduct of
proceedings, including to ensure that they are conducted in a fair and
impartial manner. Subject to any directions of the presiding judge, the
parties may submit evidence in accordance with the provisions of this
Statute.
9. The Trial Chamber shall have, inter alia, the power on application of a party or on
its own motion to:
(a) Rule on the admissibility or relevance of evidence; and
(b) Take all necessary steps to maintain order in the course of a hearing.
10. The Trial Chamber shall ensure that a complete record of the trial, which
accurately reflects the proceedings, is made and that it is maintained and
preserved by the Registrar.
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Article 65
Proceedings on an admission of guilt
1. Where the accused makes an admission of guilt pursuant to article 64, paragraph
8 (a), the Trial Chamber shall determine whether:
(a) The accused understands the nature and consequences of the admission of
guilt;
(b) The admission is voluntarily made by the accused after sufficient
consultation with defence counsel; and
(c) The admission of guilt is supported by the facts of the case that are
contained in:
(i) The charges brought by the Prosecutor and admitted by the accused;
(ii) Any materials presented by the Prosecutor which supplement the
charges and which the accused accepts; and
(iii) Any other evidence, such as the testimony of witnesses, presented
by the Prosecutor or the accused.
2. Where the Trial Chamber is satisfied that the matters referred to in paragraph 1 are
established, it shall consider the admission of guilt, together with any additional
evidence presented, as establishing all the essential facts that are required to prove
the crime to which the admission of guilt relates, and may convict the accused of
that crime.
3. Where the Trial Chamber is not satisfied that the matters referred to in paragraph
1 are established, it shall consider the admission of guilt as not having been made,
in which case it shall order that the trial be continued under the ordinary trial
procedures provided by this Statute and may remit the case to another Trial
Chamber.
4. Where the Trial Chamber is of the opinion that a more complete presentation of
the facts of the case is required in the interests of justice, in particular the interests
of the victims, the Trial Chamber may:
(a) Request the Prosecutor to present additional evidence, including the
testimony of witnesses; or
(b) Order that the trial be continued under the ordinary trial procedures
provided by this Statute, in which case it shall consider the admission of
guilt as not having been made and may remit the case to another Trial
Chamber.
5. Any discussions between the Prosecutor and the defence regarding modification
of the charges, the admission of guilt or the penalty to be imposed shall not be
binding on the Court.
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Article 66
Presumption of innocence
1. Everyone shall be presumed innocent until proved guilty before the Court in
accordance with the applicable law.
2. The onus is on the Prosecutor to prove the guilt of the accused.
3. In order to convict the accused, the Court must be convinced of the guilt of the
accused beyond reasonable doubt.
Article 67
Rights of the accused
1. In the determination of any charge, the accused shall be entitled to a public
hearing, having regard to the provisions of this Statute, to a fair hearing conducted
impartially, and to the following minimum guarantees, in full equality:
(a) To be informed promptly and in detail of the nature, cause and content of
the charge, in a language which the accused fully understands and speaks;
(b) To have adequate time and facilities for the preparation of the defence and
to communicate freely with counsel of the accused's choosing in
confidence;
(c) To be tried without undue delay;
(d) Subject to article 63, paragraph 2, to be present at the trial, to conduct the
defence in person or through legal assistance of the accused's choosing, to
be informed, if the accused does not have legal assistance, of this right and
to have legal assistance assigned by the Court in any case where the
interests of justice so require, and without payment if the accused lacks
sufficient means to pay for it;
(e) To examine, or have examined, the witnesses against him or her and to
obtain the attendance and examination of witnesses on his or her behalf
under the same conditions as witnesses against him or her. The accused
shall also be entitled to raise defences and to present other evidence
admissible under this Statute;
(f) To have, free of any cost, the assistance of a competent interpreter and such
translations as are necessary to meet the requirements of fairness, if any of
the proceedings of or documents presented to the Court are not in a
language which the accused fully understands and speaks;
(g) Not to be compelled to testify or to confess guilt and to remain silent,
without such silence being a consideration in the determination of guilt or
innocence;
(h) To make an unsworn oral or written statement in his or her defence; and
(i) Not to have imposed on him or her any reversal of the burden of proof or
any onus of rebuttal.
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2. In addition to any other disclosure provided for in this Statute, the Prosecutor
shall, as soon as practicable, disclose to the defence evidence in the Prosecutor's
possession or control which he or she believes shows or tends to show the
innocence of the accused, or to mitigate the guilt of the accused, or which may
affect the credibility of prosecution evidence. In case of doubt as to the application
of this paragraph, the Court shall decide.
Article 68
Protection of the victims and witnesses and their participation in the
proceedings
1. The Court shall take appropriate measures to protect the safety, physical and
psychological well-being, dignity and privacy of victims and witnesses. In so
doing, the Court shall have regard to all relevant factors, including age, gender as
defined in article 7, paragraph 3, and health, and the nature of the crime, in
particular, but not limited to, where the crime involves sexual or gender violence
or violence against children. The Prosecutor shall take such measures particularly
during the investigation and prosecution of such crimes. These measures shall not
be prejudicial to or inconsistent with the rights of the accused and a fair and
impartial trial.
2. As an exception to the principle of public hearings provided for in article 67, the
Chambers of the Court may, to protect victims and witnesses or an accused,
conduct any part of the proceedings in camera or allow the presentation of
evidence by electronic or other special means. In particular, such measures shall be
implemented in the case of a victim of sexual violence or a child who is a victim or
a witness, unless otherwise ordered by the Court, having regard to all the
circumstances, particularly the views of the victim or witness.
3. Where the personal interests of the victims are affected, the Court shall permit
their views and concerns to be presented and considered at stages of the
proceedings determined to be appropriate by the Court and in a manner which is
not prejudicial to or inconsistent with the rights of the accused and a fair and
impartial trial. Such views and concerns may be presented by the legal
representatives of the victims where the Court considers it appropriate, in
accordance with the Rules of Procedure and Evidence.
4. The Victims and Witnesses Unit may advise the Prosecutor and the Court on
appropriate protective measures, security arrangements, counselling and
assistance as referred to in article 43, paragraph 6.
5. Where the disclosure of evidence or information pursuant to this Statute may lead
to the grave endangerment of the security of a witness or his or her family, the
Prosecutor may, for the purposes of any proceedings conducted prior to the
commencement of the trial, withhold such evidence or information and instead
submit a summary thereof. Such measures shall be exercised in a manner which is
not prejudicial to or inconsistent with the rights of the accused and a fair and
impartial trial.
6. A State may make an application for necessary measures to be taken in respect of
the protection of its servants or agents and the protection of confidential or
sensitive information.
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Article 69
Evidence
1. Before testifying, each witness shall, in accordance with the Rules of Procedure
and Evidence, give an undertaking as to the truthfulness of the evidence to be
given by that witness.
2. The testimony of a witness at trial shall be given in person, except to the extent
provided by the measures set forth in article 68 or in the Rules of Procedure and
Evidence. The Court may also permit the giving of viva voce (oral) or recorded
testimony of a witness by means of video or audio technology, as well as the
introduction of documents or written transcripts, subject to this Statute and in
accordance with the Rules of Procedure and Evidence. These measures shall not be
prejudicial to or inconsistent with the rights of the accused.
3. The parties may submit evidence relevant to the case, in accordance with article
64. The Court shall have the authority to request the submission of all evidence
that it considers necessary for the determination of the truth.
4. The Court may rule on the relevance or admissibility of any evidence, taking into
account, inter alia, the probative value of the evidence and any prejudice that such
evidence may cause to a fair trial or to a fair evaluation of the testimony of a
witness, in accordance with the Rules of Procedure and Evidence.
5. The Court shall respect and observe privileges on confidentiality as provided for in
the Rules of Procedure and Evidence.
6. The Court shall not require proof of facts of common knowledge but may take
judicial notice of them.
7. Evidence obtained by means of a violation of this Statute or internationally
recognized human rights shall not be admissible if:
(a) The violation casts substantial doubt on the reliability of the evidence; or
(b) The admission of the evidence would be antithetical to and would
seriously damage the integrity of the proceedings.
8. When deciding on the relevance or admissibility of evidence collected by a State,
the Court shall not rule on the application of the State's national law.
Article 70
Offences against the administration of justice
1. The Court shall have jurisdiction over the following offences against its
administration of justice when committed intentionally:
(a) Giving false testimony when under an obligation pursuant to article 69,
paragraph 1, to tell the truth;
(b) Presenting evidence that the party knows is false or forged;
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(c) Corruptly influencing a witness, obstructing or interfering with the
attendance or testimony of a witness, retaliating against a witness for
giving testimony or destroying, tampering with or interfering with the
collection of evidence;
(d) Impeding, intimidating or corruptly influencing an official of the Court for
the purpose of forcing or persuading the official not to perform, or to
perform improperly, his or her duties;
(e) Retaliating against an official of the Court on account of duties performed
by that or another official;
(f) Soliciting or accepting a bribe as an official of the Court in connection with
his or her official duties.
2. The principles and procedures governing the Court's exercise of jurisdiction over
offences under this article shall be those provided for in the Rules of Procedure
and Evidence. The conditions for providing international cooperation to the Court
with respect to its proceedings under this article shall be governed by the domestic
laws of the requested State.
3. In the event of conviction, the Court may impose a term of imprisonment not
exceeding five years, or a fine in accordance with the Rules of Procedure and
Evidence, or both.
4. (a) Each State Party shall extend its criminal laws penalizing offences against
the integrity of its own investigative or judicial process to offences against
the administration of justice referred to in this article, committed on its
territory, or by one of its nationals;
(b) Upon request by the Court, whenever it deems it proper, the State Party
shall submit the case to its competent authorities for the purpose of
prosecution. Those authorities shall treat such cases with diligence and
devote sufficient resources to enable them to be conducted effectively.
Article 71
Sanctions for misconduct before the Court
1. The Court may sanction persons present before it who commit misconduct,
including disruption of its proceedings or deliberate refusal to comply with its
directions, by administrative measures other than imprisonment, such as
temporary or permanent removal from the courtroom, a fine or other similar
measures provided for in the Rules of Procedure and Evidence.
2. The procedures governing the imposition of the measures set forth in paragraph 1
shall be those provided for in the Rules of Procedure and Evidence.
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Article 72
Protection of national security information
1. This article applies in any case where the disclosure of the information or
documents of a State would, in the opinion of that State, prejudice its national
security interests. Such cases include those falling within the scope of article 56,
paragraphs 2 and 3, article 61, paragraph 3, article 64, paragraph 3, article 67,
paragraph 2, article 68, paragraph 6, article 87, paragraph 6 and article 93, as well
as cases arising at any other stage of the proceedings where such disclosure may
be at issue.
2. This article shall also apply when a person who has been requested to give
information or evidence has refused to do so or has referred the matter to the State
on the ground that disclosure would prejudice the national security interests of a
State and the State concerned confirms that it is of the opinion that disclosure
would prejudice its national security interests.
3. Nothing in this article shall prejudice the requirements of confidentiality
applicable under article 54, paragraph 3 (e) and (f), or the application of article 73.
4. If a State learns that information or documents of the State are being, or are likely
to be, disclosed at any stage of the proceedings, and it is of the opinion that
disclosure would prejudice its national security interests, that State shall have the
right to intervene in order to obtain resolution of the issue in accordance with this
article.
5. If, in the opinion of a State, disclosure of information would prejudice its national
security interests, all reasonable steps will be taken by the State, acting in
conjunction with the Prosecutor, the defence or the Pre-Trial Chamber or Trial
Chamber, as the case may be, to seek to resolve the matter by cooperative means.
Such steps may include:
(a) Modification or clarification of the request;
(b) A determination by the Court regarding the relevance of the information
or evidence sought, or a determination as to whether the evidence, though
relevant, could be or has been obtained from a source other than the
requested State;
(c) Obtaining the information or evidence from a different source or in a
different form; or
(d) Agreement on conditions under which the assistance could be provided
including, among other things, providing summaries or redactions,
limitations on disclosure, use of in camera or ex parte proceedings, or other
protective measures permissible under the Statute and the Rules of
Procedure and Evidence.
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6. Once all reasonable steps have been taken to resolve the matter through
cooperative means, and if the State considers that there are no means or
conditions under which the information or documents could be provided or
disclosed without prejudice to its national security interests, it shall so notify the
Prosecutor or the Court of the specific reasons for its decision, unless a specific
description of the reasons would itself necessarily result in such prejudice to the
State's national security interests.
7. Thereafter, if the Court determines that the evidence is relevant and necessary for
the establishment of the guilt or innocence of the accused, the Court may
undertake the following actions:
(a) Where disclosure of the information or document is sought pursuant to a
request for cooperation under Part 9 or the circumstances described in
paragraph 2, and the State has invoked the ground for refusal referred to
in article 93, paragraph 4:
(i) The Court may, before making any conclusion referred to in
subparagraph 7 (a) (ii), request further consultations for the purpose
of considering the State's representations, which may include, as
appropriate, hearings in camera and ex parte;
(ii) If the Court concludes that, by invoking the ground for refusal
under article 93, paragraph 4, in the circumstances of the case, the
requested State is not acting in accordance with its obligations
under this Statute, the Court may refer the matter in accordance
with article 87, paragraph 7, specifying the reasons for its
conclusion; and
(iii) The Court may make such inference in the trial of the accused as to
the existence or non-existence of a fact, as may be appropriate in the
circumstances; or
(b) In all other circumstances:
(i) Order disclosure; or
(ii) To the extent it does not order disclosure, make such inference in
the trial of the accused as to the existence or non-existence of a fact,
as may be appropriate in the circumstances.
Article 73
Third-party information or documents
If a State Party is requested by the Court to provide a document or information in its custody,
possession or control, which was disclosed to it in confidence by a State, intergovernmental
organization or international organization, it shall seek the consent of the originator to
disclose that document or information. If the originator is a State Party, it shall either consent
to disclosure of the information or document or undertake to resolve the issue of disclosure
with the Court, subject to the provisions of article 72. If the originator is not a State Party and
refuses to consent to disclosure, the requested State shall inform the Court that it is unable to
provide the document or information because of a pre-existing obligation of confidentiality to
the originator.
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Article 74
Requirements for the decision
1. All the judges of the Trial Chamber shall be present at each stage of the trial and
throughout their deliberations. The Presidency may, on a case-by-case basis,
designate, as available, one or more alternate judges to be present at each stage of
the trial and to replace a member of the Trial Chamber if that member is unable to
continue attending.
2. The Trial Chamber's decision shall be based on its evaluation of the evidence and
the entire proceedings. The decision shall not exceed the facts and circumstances
described in the charges and any amendments to the charges. The Court may base
its decision only on evidence submitted and discussed before it at the trial.
3. The judges shall attempt to achieve unanimity in their decision, failing which the
decision shall be taken by a majority of the judges.
4. The deliberations of the Trial Chamber shall remain secret.
5. The decision shall be in writing and shall contain a full and reasoned statement of
the Trial Chamber's findings on the evidence and conclusions. The Trial Chamber
shall issue one decision. When there is no unanimity, the Trial Chamber's decision
shall contain the views of the majority and the minority. The decision or a
summary thereof shall be delivered in open court.
Article 75
Reparations to victims
1. The Court shall establish principles relating to reparations to, or in respect of,
victims, including restitution, compensation and rehabilitation. On this basis, in
its decision the Court may, either upon request or on its own motion in
exceptional circumstances, determine the scope and extent of any damage, loss
and injury to, or in respect of, victims and will state the principles on which it is
acting.
2. The Court may make an order directly against a convicted person specifying
appropriate reparations to, or in respect of, victims, including restitution,
compensation and rehabilitation.
Where appropriate, the Court may order that the award for reparations be made
through the Trust Fund provided for in article 79.
3. Before making an order under this article, the Court may invite and shall take
account of representations from or on behalf of the convicted person, victims,
other interested persons or interested States.
4. In exercising its power under this article, the Court may, after a person is convicted
of a crime within the jurisdiction of the Court, determine whether, in order to give
effect to an order which it may make under this article, it is necessary to seek
measures under article 93, paragraph 1.
5. A State Party shall give effect to a decision under this article as if the provisions of
article 109 were applicable to this article.
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6. Nothing in this article shall be interpreted as prejudicing the rights of victims
under national or international law.
Article 76
Sentencing
1. In the event of a conviction, the Trial Chamber shall consider the appropriate
sentence to be imposed and shall take into account the evidence presented and
submissions made during the trial that are relevant to the sentence.
2. Except where article 65 applies and before the completion of the trial, the Trial
Chamber may on its own motion and shall, at the request of the Prosecutor or the
accused, hold a further hearing to hear any additional evidence or submissions
relevant to the sentence, in accordance with the Rules of Procedure and Evidence.
3. Where paragraph 2 applies, any representations under article 75 shall be heard
during the further hearing referred to in paragraph 2 and, if necessary, during any
additional hearing.
4. The sentence shall be pronounced in public and, wherever possible, in the
presence of the accused.
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Part VII Penalties
Article 77
Applicable penalties
1. Subject to article 110, the Court may impose one of the following penalties on a
person convicted of a crime referred to in article 5 of this Statute:
(a) Imprisonment for a specified number of years, which may not exceed a
maximum of 30 years; or
(b) A term of life imprisonment when justified by the extreme gravity of the
crime and the individual circumstances of the convicted person.
2. In addition to imprisonment, the Court may order:
(a) A fine under the criteria provided for in the Rules of Procedure and
Evidence;
(b) A forfeiture of proceeds, property and assets derived directly or indirectly
from that crime, without prejudice to the rights of bona fide third parties.
Article 78
Determination of the sentence
1. In determining the sentence, the Court shall, in accordance with the Rules of
Procedure and Evidence, take into account such factors as the gravity of the crime
and the individual circumstances of the convicted person.
2. In imposing a sentence of imprisonment, the Court shall deduct the time, if any,
previously spent in detention in accordance with an order of the Court. The Court
may deduct any time otherwise spent in detention in connection with conduct
underlying the crime.
3. When a person has been convicted of more than one crime, the Court shall
pronounce a sentence for each crime and a joint sentence specifying the total
period of imprisonment. This period shall be no less than the highest individual
sentence pronounced and shall not exceed 30 years imprisonment or a sentence of
life imprisonment in conformity with article 77, paragraph 1 (b).
Article 79
Trust Fund
1. A Trust Fund shall be established by decision of the Assembly of States Parties for
the benefit of victims of crimes within the jurisdiction of the Court, and of the
families of such victims.
2. The Court may order money and other property collected through fines or
forfeiture to be transferred, by order of the Court, to the Trust Fund.
3. The Trust Fund shall be managed according to criteria to be determined by the
Assembly of States Parties.
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Article 80
Non-prejudice to national application of penalties and national laws
Nothing in this Part affects the application by States of penalties prescribed by their national
law, nor the law of States which do not provide for penalties prescribed in this Part.
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Part VIII Appeal and Revision
Article 81
Appeal against decision of acquittal or conviction or against sentence
1. A decision under article 74 may be appealed in accordance with the Rules of
Procedure and Evidence as follows:
(a) The Prosecutor may make an appeal on any of the following grounds:
(i) Procedural error,
(ii) Error of fact, or
(iii) Error of law;
(b) The convicted person, or the Prosecutor on that person's behalf, may make
an appeal on any of the following grounds:
(i) Procedural error,
(ii) Error of fact,
(iii) Error of law, or
(iv) Any other ground that affects the fairness or reliability of the
proceedings or decision.
2. (a) A sentence may be appealed, in accordance with the Rules of Procedure
and Evidence, by the Prosecutor or the convicted person on the ground of
disproportion between the crime and the sentence;
(b) If on an appeal against sentence the Court considers that there are
grounds on which the conviction might be set aside, wholly or in part, it
may invite the Prosecutor and the convicted person to submit grounds
under article 81, paragraph 1 (a) or (b), and may render a decision on
conviction in accordance with article 83;
(c) The same procedure applies when the Court, on an appeal against
conviction only, considers that there are grounds to reduce the sentence
under paragraph 2 (a).
3. (a) Unless the Trial Chamber orders otherwise, a convicted person shall
remain in custody pending an appeal;
(b) When a convicted person's time in custody exceeds the sentence of
imprisonment imposed, that person shall be released, except that if the
Prosecutor is also appealing, the release may be subject to the conditions
under subparagraph (c) below;
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(c) In case of an acquittal, the accused shall be released immediately, subject
to the following:
(i) Under exceptional circumstances, and having regard, inter alia, to
the concrete risk of flight, the seriousness of the offence charged
and the probability of success on appeal, the Trial Chamber, at the
request of the Prosecutor, may maintain the detention of the person
pending appeal;
(ii) A decision by the Trial Chamber under subparagraph (c) (i) may be
appealed in accordance with the Rules of Procedure and Evidence.
4. Subject to the provisions of paragraph 3 (a) and (b), execution of the decision or
sentence shall be suspended during the period allowed for appeal and for the
duration of the appeal proceedings.
Article 82
Appeal against other decisions
1. Either party may appeal any of the following decisions in accordance with
the Rules of Procedure and Evidence:
(a) A decision with respect to jurisdiction or admissibility;
(b) A decision granting or denying release of the person being investigated or
prosecuted;
(c) A decision of the Pre-Trial Chamber to act on its own initiative under
article 56, paragraph 3;
(d) A decision that involves an issue that would significantly affect the fair and
expeditious conduct of the proceedings or the outcome of the trial, and for
which, in the opinion of the Pre-Trial or Trial Chamber, an immediate
resolution by the Appeals Chamber may materially advance the
proceedings.
2. A decision of the Pre-Trial Chamber under article 57, paragraph 3 (d), may be
appealed against by the State concerned or by the Prosecutor, with the leave of the
Pre-Trial Chamber. The appeal shall be heard on an expedited basis.
3. An appeal shall not of itself have suspensive effect unless the Appeals Chamber so
orders, upon request, in accordance with the Rules of Procedure and Evidence.
4. A legal representative of the victims, the convicted person or a bona fide owner of
property adversely affected by an order under article 75 may appeal against the
order for reparations, as provided in the Rules of Procedure and Evidence.
Article 83
Proceedings on appeal
1. For the purposes of proceedings under article 81 and this article, the Appeals
Chamber shall have all the powers of the Trial Chamber.
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2. If the Appeals Chamber finds that the proceedings appealed from were unfair in a
way that affected the reliability of the decision or sentence, or that the decision or
sentence appealed from was materially affected by error of fact or law or
procedural error, it may:
(a) Reverse or amend the decision or sentence; or
(b) Order a new trial before a different Trial Chamber.
For these purposes, the Appeals Chamber may remand a factual issue to the
original Trial Chamber for it to determine the issue and to report back accordingly,
or may itself call evidence to determine the issue. When the decision or sentence
has been appealed only by the person convicted, or the Prosecutor on that
person's behalf, it cannot be amended to his or her detriment.
3. If in an appeal against sentence the Appeals Chamber finds that the sentence is
disproportionate to the crime, it may vary the sentence in accordance with Part 7.
4. The judgement of the Appeals Chamber shall be taken by a majority of the judges
and shall be delivered in open court. The judgement shall state the reasons on
which it is based. When there is no unanimity, the judgement of the Appeals
Chamber shall contain the views of the majority and the minority, but a judge may
deliver a separate or dissenting opinion on a question of law.
5. The Appeals Chamber may deliver its judgement in the absence of the person
acquitted or convicted.
Article 84
Revision of conviction or sentence
1. The convicted person or, after death, spouses, children, parents or one person
alive at the time of the accused's death who has been given express written
instructions from the accused to bring such a claim, or the Prosecutor on the
person's behalf, may apply to the Appeals Chamber to revise the final judgement
of conviction or sentence on the grounds that:
(a) New evidence has been discovered that:
(i) Was not available at the time of trial, and such unavailability was
not wholly or partially attributable to the party making application;
and
(ii) Is sufficiently important that had it been proved at trial it would
have been likely to have resulted in a different verdict;
(b) It has been newly discovered that decisive evidence, taken into account at
trial and upon which the conviction depends, was false, forged or falsified;
(c) One or more of the judges who participated in conviction or confirmation
of the charges has committed, in that case, an act of serious misconduct or
serious breach of duty of sufficient gravity to justify the removal of that
judge or those judges from office under article 46.
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2. The Appeals Chamber shall reject the application if it considers it to be
unfounded. If it determines that the application is meritorious, it may, as
appropriate:
(a) Reconvene the original Trial Chamber;
(b) Constitute a new Trial Chamber; or
(c) Retain jurisdiction over the matter,
with a view to, after hearing the parties in the manner set forth in the Rules of
Procedure and Evidence, arriving at a determination on whether the judgement
should be revised.
Article 85
Compensation to an arrested or convicted person
1. Anyone who has been the victim of unlawful arrest or detention shall have
an enforceable right to compensation.
2. When a person has by a final decision been convicted of a criminal offence, and
when subsequently his or her conviction has been reversed on the ground that a
new or newly discovered fact shows conclusively that there has been a miscarriage
of justice, the person who has suffered punishment as a result of such conviction
shall be compensated according to law, unless it is proved that the non-disclosure
of the unknown fact in time is wholly or partly attributable to him or her.
3. In exceptional circumstances, where the Court finds conclusive facts showing that
there has been a grave and manifest miscarriage of justice, it may in its discretion
award compensation, according to the criteria provided in the Rules of Procedure
and Evidence, to a person who has been released from detention following a final
decision of acquittal or a termination of the proceedings for that reason.
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Part IX International cooperation and judicial assistance
Article 86
General obligation to cooperate
States Parties shall, in accordance with the provisions of this Statute, cooperate fully with the
Court in its investigation and prosecution of crimes within the jurisdiction of the Court.
Article 87
Requests for cooperation: general provisions
1. (a) The Court shall have the authority to make requests to States Parties for
cooperation. The requests shall be transmitted through the diplomatic
channel or any other appropriate channel as may be designated by each
State Party upon ratification, acceptance, approval or accession.
Subsequent changes to the designation shall be made by each State Party in
accordance with the Rules of Procedure and Evidence.
(b) When appropriate, without prejudice to the provisions of subparagraph
(a), requests may also be transmitted through the International Criminal
Police Organization or any appropriate regional organization.
2. Requests for cooperation and any documents supporting the request shall either
be in or be accompanied by a translation into an official language of the requested
State or one of the working languages of the Court, in accordance with the choice
made by that State upon ratification, acceptance, approval or accession.
Subsequent changes to this choice shall be made in accordance with the Rules of
Procedure and Evidence.
3. The requested State shall keep confidential a request for cooperation and any
documents supporting the request, except to the extent that the disclosure is
necessary for execution of the request.
4. In relation to any request for assistance presented under this Part, the Court may
take such measures, including measures related to the protection of information,
as may be necessary to ensure the safety or physical or psychological well-being of
any victims, potential witnesses and their families. The Court may request that any
information that is made available under this Part shall be provided and handled
in a manner that protects the safety and physical or psychological well-being of
any victims, potential witnesses and their families.
5. (a) The Court may invite any State not party to this Statute to provide
assistance under this Part on the basis of an ad hoc arrangement, an
agreement with such State or any other appropriate basis.
(b) Where a State not party to this Statute, which has entered into an ad hoc
arrangement or an agreement with the Court, fails to cooperate with
requests pursuant to any such arrangement or agreement, the Court may
so inform the Assembly of States Parties or, where the Security Council
referred the matter to the Court, the Security Council.
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6. The Court may ask any intergovernmental organization to provide information or
documents. The Court may also ask for other forms of cooperation and assistance
which may be agreed upon with such an organization and which are in accordance
with its competence or mandate.
7. Where a State Party fails to comply with a request to cooperate by the Court
contrary to the provisions of this Statute, thereby preventing the Court from
exercising its functions and powers under this Statute, the Court may make a
finding to that effect and refer the matter to the Assembly of States Parties or,
where the Security Council referred the matter to the Court, to the Security
Council.
Article 88
Availability of procedures under national law
States Parties shall ensure that there are procedures available under their national law for all
of the forms of cooperation which are specified under this Part.
Article 89
Surrender of persons to the Court
1. The Court may transmit a request for the arrest and surrender of a person,
together with the material supporting the request outlined in article 91, to any
State on the territory of which that person may be found and shall request the
cooperation of that State in the arrest and surrender of such a person. States
Parties shall, in accordance with the provisions of this Part and the procedure
under their national law, comply with requests for arrest and surrender.
2. Where the person sought for surrender brings a challenge before a national court
on the basis of the principle of ne bis in idem as provided in article 20, the
requested State shall immediately consult with the Court to determine if there has
been a relevant ruling on admissibility. If the case is admissible, the requested
State shall proceed with the execution of the request. If an admissibility ruling is
pending, the requested State may postpone the execution of the request for
surrender of the person until the Court makes a determination on admissibility.
3. (a) A State Party shall authorize, in accordance with its national procedural
law, transportation through its territory of a person being surrendered to
the Court by another State, except where transit through that State would
impede or delay the surrender.
(b) A request by the Court for transit shall be transmitted in accordance with
article 87. The request for transit shall contain:
(i) A description of the person being transported;
(ii) A brief statement of the facts of the case and their legal
characterization; and
(iii) The warrant for arrest and surrender;
(c) A person being transported shall be detained in custody during the period
of transit;
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(d) No authorization is required if the person is transported by air and no
landing is scheduled on the territory of the transit State;
(e) If an unscheduled landing occurs on the territory of the transit State, that
State may require a request for transit from the Court as provided for in
subparagraph (b). The transit State shall detain the person being
transported until the request for transit is received and the transit is
effected, provided that detention for purposes of this subparagraph may
not be extended beyond 96 hours from the unscheduled landing unless the
request is received within that time.
4. If the person sought is being proceeded against or is serving a sentence in
the requested State for a crime different from that for which surrender to the Court
is sought, the requested State, after making its decision to grant the request, shall
consult with the Court.
Article 90
Competing requests
1. A State Party which receives a request from the Court for the surrender of a person
under article 89 shall, if it also receives a request from any other State for the
extradition of the same person for the same conduct which forms the basis of the
crime for which the Court seeks the person's surrender, notify the Court and the
requesting State of that fact.
2. Where the requesting State is a State Party, the requested State shall give priority
to the request from the Court if:
(a) The Court has, pursuant to article 18 or 19, made a determination that the
case in respect of which surrender is sought is admissible and that
determination takes into account the investigation or prosecution
conducted by the requesting State in respect of its request for extradition;
or
(b) The Court makes the determination described in subparagraph (a)
pursuant to the requested State's notification under paragraph 1.
3. Where a determination under paragraph 2 (a) has not been made, the requested
State may, at its discretion, pending the determination of the Court under
paragraph 2 (b), proceed to deal with the request for extradition from the
requesting State but shall not extradite the person until the Court has determined
that the case is inadmissible. The Court's determination shall be made on an
expedited basis.
4. If the requesting State is a State not Party to this Statute the requested State, if it is
not under an international obligation to extradite the person to the requesting
State, shall give priority to the request for surrender from the Court, if the Court
has determined that the case is admissible.
5. Where a case under paragraph 4 has not been determined to be admissible by the
Court, the requested State may, at its discretion, proceed to deal with the request
for extradition from the requesting State.
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6. In cases where paragraph 4 applies except that the requested State is under an
existing international obligation to extradite the person to the requesting State not
Party to this Statute, the requested State shall determine whether to surrender the
person to the Court or extradite the person to the requesting State. In making its
decision, the requested State shall consider all the relevant factors, including but
not limited to:
(a) The respective dates of the requests;
(b) The interests of the requesting State including, where relevant, whether
the crime was committed in its territory and the nationality of the victims
and of the person sought; and
(c) The possibility of subsequent surrender between the Court and the
requesting State.
7. Where a State Party which receives a request from the Court for the surrender of a
person also receives a request from any State for the extradition of the same
person for conduct other than that which constitutes the crime for which the
Court seeks the person's surrender:
(a) The requested State shall, if it is not under an existing international
obligation to extradite the person to the requesting State, give priority to
the request from the Court;
(b) The requested State shall, if it is under an existing international obligation
to extradite the person to the requesting State, determine whether to
surrender the person to the Court or to extradite the person to the
requesting State. In making its decision, the requested State shall consider
all the relevant factors, including but not limited to those set out in
paragraph 6, but shall give special consideration to the relative nature and
gravity of the conduct in question.
. Where pursuant to a notification under this article, the Court has determined a
case to be inadmissible, and subsequently extradition to the requesting State is
refused, the requested State shall notify the Court of this decision.
Article 91
Contents of request for arrest and surrender
1. A request for arrest and surrender shall be made in writing. In urgent cases, a
request may be made by any medium capable of delivering a written record,
provided that the request shall be confirmed through the channel provided for in
article 87, paragraph 1 (a).
2. In the case of a request for the arrest and surrender of a person for whom a
warrant of arrest has been issued by the Pre-Trial Chamber under article 58, the
request shall contain or be supported by:
(a) Information describing the person sought, sufficient to identify the person,
and information as to that person's probable location;
(b) A copy of the warrant of arrest; and
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(c) Such documents, statements or information as may be necessary to meet
the requirements for the surrender process in the requested State, except
that those requirements should not be more burdensome than those
applicable to requests for extradition pursuant to treaties or arrangements
between the requested State and other States and should, if possible, be
less burdensome, taking into account the distinct nature of the Court.
3. In the case of a request for the arrest and surrender of a person already convicted,
the request shall contain or be supported by:
(a) A copy of any warrant of arrest for that person;
(b) A copy of the judgement of conviction;
(c) Information to demonstrate that the person sought is the one referred to
in the judgement of conviction; and
(d) If the person sought has been sentenced, a copy of the sentence imposed
and, in the case of a sentence for imprisonment, a statement of any time
already served and the time remaining to be served.
4. Upon the request of the Court, a State Party shall consult with the Court, either
generally or with respect to a specific matter, regarding any requirements under its
national law that may apply under paragraph 2 (c). During the consultations, the
State Party shall advise the Court of the specific requirements of its national law.
Article 92
Provisional arrest
1. In urgent cases, the Court may request the provisional arrest of the person sought,
pending presentation of the request for surrender and the documents supporting
the request as specified in article 91.
2. The request for provisional arrest shall be made by any medium capable of
delivering a written record and shall contain:
(a) Information describing the person sought, sufficient to identify the person,
and information as to that person's probable location;
(b) A concise statement of the crimes for which the person's arrest is sought
and of the facts which are alleged to constitute those crimes, including,
where possible, the date and location of the crime;
(c) A statement of the existence of a warrant of arrest or a judgement of
conviction against the person sought; and
(d) A statement that a request for surrender of the person sought will follow.
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3. A person who is provisionally arrested may be released from custody if the
requested State has not received the request for surrender and the documents
supporting the request as specified in article 91 within the time limits specified in
the Rules of Procedure and Evidence. However, the person may consent to
surrender before the expiration of this period if permitted by the law of the
requested State. In such a case, the requested State shall proceed to surrender the
person to the Court as soon as possible.
4. The fact that the person sought has been released from custody pursuant to
paragraph 3 shall not prejudice the subsequent arrest and surrender of that person
if the request for surrender and the documents supporting the request are
delivered at a later date.
Article 93
Other forms of cooperation
1. States Parties shall, in accordance with the provisions of this Part and under
procedures of national law, comply with requests by the Court to provide the
following assistance in relation to investigations or prosecutions:
(a) The identification and whereabouts of persons or the location of items;
(b) The taking of evidence, including testimony under oath, and the
production of evidence, including expert opinions and reports necessary to
the Court;
(c) The questioning of any person being investigated or prosecuted;
(d) The service of documents, including judicial documents;
(e) Facilitating the voluntary appearance of persons as witnesses or experts
before the Court;
(f) The temporary transfer of persons as provided in paragraph 7;
(g) The examination of places or sites, including the exhumation and
examination of grave sites;
(h) The execution of searches and seizures;
(i) The provision of records and documents, including official records and
documents;
(j) The protection of victims and witnesses and the preservation of evidence;
(k) The identification, tracing and freezing or seizure of proceeds, property
and assets and instrumentalities of crimes for the purpose of eventual
forfeiture, without prejudice to the rights of bona fide third parties; and
(l) Any other type of assistance which is not prohibited by the law of
the requested State, with a view to facilitating the investigation and
prosecution of crimes within the jurisdiction of the Court.
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2. The Court shall have the authority to provide an assurance to a witness or an
expert appearing before the Court that he or she will not be prosecuted, detained
or subjected to any restriction of personal freedom by the Court in respect of any
act or omission that preceded the departure of that person from the requested
State.
3. Where execution of a particular measure of assistance detailed in a request
presented under paragraph 1, is prohibited in the requested State on the basis of
an existing fundamental legal principle of general application, the requested State
shall promptly consult with the Court to try to resolve the matter. In the
consultations, consideration should be given to whether the assistance can be
rendered in another manner or subject to conditions. If after consultations the
matter cannot be resolved, the Court shall modify the request as necessary.
4. In accordance with article 72, a State Party may deny a request for assistance, in
whole or in part, only if the request concerns the production of any documents or
disclosure of evidence which relates to its national security.
5. Before denying a request for assistance under paragraph 1 (l), the requested State
shall consider whether the assistance can be provided subject to specified
conditions, or whether the assistance can be provided at a later date or in an
alternative manner, provided that if the Court or the Prosecutor accepts the
assistance subject to conditions, the Court or the Prosecutor shall abide by them.
6. If a request for assistance is denied, the requested State Party shall promptly
inform the Court or the Prosecutor of the reasons for such denial.
7. (a) The Court may request the temporary transfer of a person in custody for
purposes of identification or for obtaining testimony or other assistance.
The person may be transferred if the following conditions are fulfilled:
(i) The person freely gives his or her informed consent to the transfer;
and
(ii) The requested State agrees to the transfer, subject to such conditions
as that State and the Court may agree.
(b) The person being transferred shall remain in custody. When the purposes
of the transfer have been fulfilled, the Court shall return the person
without delay to the requested State.
8. (a) The Court shall ensure the confidentiality of documents and information,
except as required for the investigation and proceedings described in the
request.
(b) The requested State may, when necessary, transmit documents or
information to the Prosecutor on a confidential basis. The Prosecutor may
then use them solely for the purpose of generating new evidence.
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(c) The requested State may, on its own motion or at the request of the
Prosecutor, subsequently consent to the disclosure of such documents or
information. They may then be used as evidence pursuant to the
provisions of Parts 5 and 6 and in accordance with the Rules of Procedure
and Evidence.
9. (a) (i) In the event that a State Party receives competing requests, other
than for surrender or extradition, from the Court and from another
State pursuant to an international obligation, the State Party shall
endeavour, in consultation with the Court and the other State, to
meet both requests, if necessary by postponing or attaching
conditions to one or the other request.
(ii) Failing that, competing requests shall be resolved in accordance
with the principles established in article 90.
(b) Where, however, the request from the Court concerns information,
property or persons which are subject to the control of a third State or an
international organization by virtue of an international agreement, the
requested States shall so inform the Court and the Court shall direct its
request to the third State or international organization.
10. (a) The Court may, upon request, cooperate with and provide assistance to a
State Party conducting an investigation into or trial in respect of conduct
which constitutes a crime within the jurisdiction of the Court or which
constitutes a serious crime under the national law of the requesting State.
(b) (i) The assistance provided under subparagraph (a) shall include,
inter alia:
a. The transmission of statements, documents or other types of
evidence obtained in the course of an investigation or a trial
conducted by the Court; and
b. The questioning of any person detained by order of the Court;
(ii) In the case of assistance under subparagraph (b) (i) a:
a. If the documents or other types of evidence have been
obtained with the assistance of a State, such transmission shall
require the consent of that State;
b. If the statements, documents or other types of evidence have
been provided by a witness or expert, such transmission shall be
subject to the provisions of article 68.
(c) The Court may, under the conditions set out in this paragraph, grant a
request for assistance under this paragraph from a State which is not a
Party to this Statute.
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Article 94
Postponement of execution of a request in respect of ongoing
investigation or prosecution
1. If the immediate execution of a request would interfere with an ongoing
investigation or prosecution of a case different from that to which the request
relates, the requested State may postpone the execution of the request for a period
of time agreed upon with the Court. However, the postponement shall be no
longer than is necessary to complete the relevant investigation or prosecution in
the requested State. Before making a decision to postpone, the requested State
should consider whether the assistance may be immediately provided subject to
certain conditions.
2. If a decision to postpone is taken pursuant to paragraph 1, the Prosecutor
may, however, seek measures to preserve evidence, pursuant to article 93,
paragraph 1 (j).
Article 95
Postponement of execution of a request in respect of an admissibility
challenge
Where there is an admissibility challenge under consideration by the Court pursuant to article
18 or 19, the requested State may postpone the execution of a request under this Part pending
a determination by the Court, unless the Court has specifically ordered that the Prosecutor
may pursue the collection of such evidence pursuant to article 18 or 19.
Article 96
Contents of request for other forms of assistance under article 93
1. A request for other forms of assistance referred to in article 93 shall be made in
writing. In urgent cases, a request may be made by any medium capable of
delivering a written record, provided that the request shall be confirmed through
the channel provided for in article 87, paragraph 1 (a).
2. The request shall, as applicable, contain or be supported by the following:
(a) A concise statement of the purpose of the request and the assistance
sought, including the legal basis and the grounds for the request;
(b) As much detailed information as possible about the location or
identification of any person or place that must be found or identified in
order for the assistance sought to be provided;
(c) A concise statement of the essential facts underlying the request;
(d) The reasons for and details of any procedure or requirement to be
followed;
(e) Such information as may be required under the law of the requested State
in order to execute the request; and
(f) Any other information relevant in order for the assistance sought to be
provided.
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3. Upon the request of the Court, a State Party shall consult with the Court, either
generally or with respect to a specific matter, regarding any requirements under its
national law that may apply under paragraph 2 (e). During the consultations, the
State Party shall advise the Court of the specific requirements of its national law.
4. The provisions of this article shall, where applicable, also apply in respect of a
request for assistance made to the Court.
Article 97
Consultations
Where a State Party receives a request under this Part in relation to which it identifies
problems which may impede or prevent the execution of the request, that State shall consult
with the Court without delay in order to resolve the matter. Such problems may include, inter
alia:
(a) Insufficient information to execute the request;
(b) In the case of a request for surrender, the fact that despite best efforts, the
person sought cannot be located or that the investigation conducted has
determined that the person in the requested State is clearly not the person
named in the warrant; or
(c) The fact that execution of the request in its current form would require the
requested State to breach a pre-existing treaty obligation undertaken with
respect to another State.
Article 98
Cooperation with respect to waiver of immunity and consent to
surrender
1. The Court may not proceed with a request for surrender or assistance which would
require the requested State to act inconsistently with its obligations under
international law with respect to the State or diplomatic immunity of a person or
property of a third State, unless the Court can first obtain the cooperation of that
third State for the waiver of the immunity.
2. The Court may not proceed with a request for surrender which would require the
requested State to act inconsistently with its obligations under international
agreements pursuant to which the consent of a sending State is required to
surrender a person of that State to the Court, unless the Court can first obtain the
cooperation of the sending State for the giving of consent for the surrender.
Article 99
Execution of requests under articles 93 and 96
1. Requests for assistance shall be executed in accordance with the relevant
procedure under the law of the requested State and, unless prohibited by such law,
in the manner specified in the request, including following any procedure outlined
therein or permitting persons specified in the request to be present at and assist in
the execution process.
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2. In the case of an urgent request, the documents or evidence produced in response
shall, at the request of the Court, be sent urgently.
3. Replies from the requested State shall be transmitted in their original language
and form.
4. Without prejudice to other articles in this Part, where it is necessary for the
successful execution of a request which can be executed without any compulsory
measures, including specifically the interview of or taking evidence from a person
on a voluntary basis, including doing so without the presence of the authorities of
the requested State Party if it is essential for the request to be executed, and the
examination without modification of a public site or other public place, the
Prosecutor may execute such request directly on the territory of a State as follows:
(a) When the State Party requested is a State on the territory of which the
crime is alleged to have been committed, and there has been a
determination of admissibility pursuant to article 18 or 19, the Prosecutor
may directly execute such request following all possible consultations with
the requested State Party;
(b) In other cases, the Prosecutor may execute such request following
consultations with the requested State Party and subject to any reasonable
conditions or concerns raised by that State Party. Where the requested
State Party identifies problems with the execution of a request pursuant to
this subparagraph it shall, without delay, consult with the Court to resolve
the matter.
5. Provisions allowing a person heard or examined by the Court under article 72 to
invoke restrictions designed to prevent disclosure of confidential information
connected with national security shall also apply to the execution of requests for
assistance under this article.
Article 100
Costs
1. The ordinary costs for execution of requests in the territory of the requested State
shall be borne by that State, except for the following, which shall be borne by the
Court:
(a) Costs associated with the travel and security of witnesses and experts or
the transfer under article 93 of persons in custody;
(b) Costs of translation, interpretation and transcription;
(c) Travel and subsistence costs of the judges, the Prosecutor, the Deputy
Prosecutors, the Registrar, the Deputy Registrar and staff of any organ of
the Court;
(d) Costs of any expert opinion or report requested by the Court;
(e) Costs associated with the transport of a person being surrendered to the
Court by a custodial State; and
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(f) Following consultations, any extraordinary costs that may result from the
execution of a request.
2. The provisions of paragraph 1 shall, as appropriate, apply to requests from States
Parties to the Court. In that case, the Court shall bear the ordinary costs of
execution.
Article 101
Rule of speciality
1. A person surrendered to the Court under this Statute shall not be proceeded
against, punished or detained for any conduct committed prior to surrender, other
than the conduct or course of conduct which forms the basis of the crimes for
which that person has been surrendered.
2. The Court may request a waiver of the requirements of paragraph 1 from the State
which surrendered the person to the Court and, if necessary, the Court shall
provide additional information in accordance with article 91. States Parties
shall have the authority to provide a waiver to the Court and should endeavour to
do so.
Article 102
Use of terms
For the purposes of this Statute:
(a) "surrender" means the delivering up of a person by a State to the Court,
pursuant to this Statute.
(b) "extradition" means the delivering up of a person by one State to another
as provided by treaty, convention or national legislation.
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Part X Enforcement
Article 103
Role of States in enforcement of sentences of imprisonment
1. (a) A sentence of imprisonment shall be served in a State designated by the
Court from a list of States which have indicated to the Court their
willingness to accept sentenced persons.
(b) At the time of declaring its willingness to accept sentenced persons, a
State may attach conditions to its acceptance as agreed by the Court and in
accordance with this Part.
(c) A State designated in a particular case shall promptly inform the Court
whether it accepts the Court's designation.
2. (a) The State of enforcement shall notify the Court of any circumstances,
including the exercise of any conditions agreed under paragraph 1, which
could materially affect the terms or extent of the imprisonment. The Court
shall be given at least 45 days' notice of any such known or foreseeable
circumstances. During this period, the State of enforcement shall take no
action that might prejudice its obligations under article 110.
(b) Where the Court cannot agree to the circumstances referred to in
subparagraph (a), it shall notify the State of enforcement and proceed in
accordance with article 104, paragraph 1.
3. In exercising its discretion to make a designation under paragraph 1, the Court
shall take into account the following:
(a) The principle that States Parties should share the responsibility for
enforcing sentences of imprisonment, in accordance with principles of
equitable distribution, as provided in the Rules of Procedure and Evidence;
(b) The application of widely accepted international treaty standards
governing the treatment of prisoners;
(c) The views of the sentenced person;
(d) The nationality of the sentenced person;
(e) Such other factors regarding the circumstances of the crime or the person
sentenced, or the effective enforcement of the sentence, as may be
appropriate in designating the State of enforcement.
4. If no State is designated under paragraph 1, the sentence of imprisonment shall be
served in a prison facility made available by the host State, in accordance with the
conditions set out in the headquarters agreement referred to in article 3,
paragraph 2. In such a case, the costs arising out of the enforcement of a sentence
of imprisonment shall be borne by the Court.
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Article 104
Change in designation of State of enforcement
1. The Court may, at any time, decide to transfer a sentenced person to a prison of
another State.
2. A sentenced person may, at any time, apply to the Court to be transferred from the
State of enforcement.
Article 105
Enforcement of the sentence
1. Subject to conditions which a State may have specified in accordance with article
103, paragraph 1 (b), the sentence of imprisonment shall be binding on the States
Parties, which shall in no case modify it.
2. The Court alone shall have the right to decide any application for appeal and
revision. The State of enforcement shall not impede the making of any such
application by a sentenced person.
Article 106
Supervision of enforcement of sentences and conditions of
imprisonment
1. The enforcement of a sentence of imprisonment shall be subject to the supervision
of the Court and shall be consistent with widely accepted international treaty
standards governing treatment of prisoners.
2. The conditions of imprisonment shall be governed by the law of the State
of enforcement and shall be consistent with widely accepted international treaty
standards governing treatment of prisoners; in no case shall such conditions be
more or less favourable than those available to prisoners convicted of similar
offences in the State of enforcement.
3. Communications between a sentenced person and the Court shall be unimpeded
and confidential.
Article 107
Transfer of the person upon completion of sentence
1. Following completion of the sentence, a person who is not a national of the State
of enforcement may, in accordance with the law of the State of enforcement, be
transferred to a State which is obliged to receive him or her, or to another State
which agrees to receive him or her, taking into account any wishes of the person to
be transferred to that State, unless the State of enforcement authorizes the person
to remain in its territory.
2. If no State bears the costs arising out of transferring the person to another State
pursuant to paragraph 1, such costs shall be borne by the Court.
3. Subject to the provisions of article 108, the State of enforcement may also, in
accordance with its national law, extradite or otherwise surrender the person to a
State which has requested the extradition or surrender of the person for purposes
of trial or enforcement of a sentence.
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Article 108
Limitation on the prosecution or punishment of other offences
1. A sentenced person in the custody of the State of enforcement shall not be subject
to prosecution or punishment or to extradition to a third State for any conduct
engaged in prior to that person's delivery to the State of enforcement, unless such
prosecution, punishment or extradition has been approved by the Court at the
request of the State of enforcement.
2. The Court shall decide the matter after having heard the views of the sentenced
person.
3. Paragraph 1 shall cease to apply if the sentenced person remains voluntarily for
more than 30 days in the territory of the State of enforcement after having served
the full sentence imposed by the Court, or returns to the territory of that State
after having left it.
Article 109
Enforcement of fines and forfeiture measures
1. States Parties shall give effect to fines or forfeitures ordered by the Court under
Part 7, without prejudice to the rights of bona fide third parties, and in accordance
with the procedure of their national law.
2. If a State Party is unable to give effect to an order for forfeiture, it shall take
measures to recover the value of the proceeds, property or assets ordered by the
Court to be forfeited, without prejudice to the rights of bona fide third parties.
3. Property, or the proceeds of the sale of real property or, where appropriate, the sale
of other property, which is obtained by a State Party as a result of its enforcement
of a judgement of the Court shall be transferred to the Court.
Article 110
Review by the Court concerning reduction of sentence
1. The State of enforcement shall not release the person before expiry of the sentence
pronounced by the Court.
2. The Court alone shall have the right to decide any reduction of sentence, and shall
rule on the matter after having heard the person.
3. When the person has served two thirds of the sentence, or 25 years in the case of
life imprisonment, the Court shall review the sentence to determine whether it
should be reduced. Such a review shall not be conducted before that time.
4. In its review under paragraph 3, the Court may reduce the sentence if it finds that
one or more of the following factors are present:
(a) The early and continuing willingness of the person to cooperate with the
Court in its investigations and prosecutions;
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(b) The voluntary assistance of the person in enabling the enforcement of the
judgements and orders of the Court in other cases, and in particular
providing assistance in locating assets subject to orders of fine, forfeiture
or reparation which may be used for the benefit of victims; or
(c) Other factors establishing a clear and significant change of circumstances
sufficient to justify the reduction of sentence, as provided in the Rules of
Procedure and Evidence.
5. If the Court determines in its initial review under paragraph 3 that it is not
appropriate to reduce the sentence, it shall thereafter review the question of
reduction of sentence at such intervals and applying such criteria as provided for
in the Rules of Procedure and Evidence.
Article 111
Escape
If a convicted person escapes from custody and flees the State of enforcement, that State may,
after consultation with the Court, request the person's surrender from the State in which the
person is located pursuant to existing bilateral or multilateral arrangements, or may request
that the Court seek the person's surrender, in accordance with Part 9. It may direct that the
person be delivered to the State in which he or she was serving the sentence or to another
State designated by the Court.
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Part XI Assembly of states parties
Article 112
Assembly of States Parties
1. An Assembly of States Parties to this Statute is hereby established. Each State
Party shall have one representative in the Assembly who may be accompanied by
alternates and advisers. Other States which have signed this Statute or the Final
Act may be observers in the Assembly.
2. The Assembly shall:
(a) Consider and adopt, as appropriate, recommendations of the Preparatory
Commission;
(b) Provide management oversight to the Presidency, the Prosecutor and the
Registrar regarding the administration of the Court;
(c) Consider the reports and activities of the Bureau established under
paragraph 3 and take appropriate action in regard thereto;
(d) Consider and decide the budget for the Court;
(e) Decide whether to alter, in accordance with article 36, the number of
judges;
(f) Consider pursuant to article 87, paragraphs 5 and 7, any question relating
to non-cooperation;
(g) Perform any other function consistent with this Statute or the Rules of
Procedure and Evidence.
3. (a) The Assembly shall have a Bureau consisting of a President, two
Vice-Presidents and 18 members elected by the Assembly for three-year
terms.
(b) The Bureau shall have a representative character, taking into account, in
particular, equitable geographical distribution and the adequate
representation of the principal legal systems of the world.
(c) The Bureau shall meet as often as necessary, but at least once a year. It
shall assist the Assembly in the discharge of its responsibilities.
4. The Assembly may establish such subsidiary bodies as may be necessary, including
an independent oversight mechanism for inspection, evaluation and investigation
of the Court, in order to enhance its efficiency and economy.
5. The President of the Court, the Prosecutor and the Registrar or their
representatives may participate, as appropriate, in meetings of the Assembly and
of the Bureau.
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6. The Assembly shall meet at the seat of the Court or at the Headquarters of the
United Nations once a year and, when circumstances so require, hold special
sessions. Except as otherwise specified in this Statute, special sessions shall be
convened by the Bureau on its own initiative or at the request of one third of the
States Parties.
7. Each State Party shall have one vote. Every effort shall be made to reach decisions
by consensus in the Assembly and in the Bureau. If consensus cannot be reached,
except as otherwise provided in the Statute:
(a) Decisions on matters of substance must be approved by a two-thirds
majority of those present and voting provided that an absolute majority of
States Parties constitutes the quorum for voting;
(b) Decisions on matters of procedure shall be taken by a simple majority of
States Parties present and voting.
8. A State Party which is in arrears in the payment of its financial contributions
towards the costs of the Court shall have no vote in the Assembly and in the
Bureau if the amount of its arrears equals or exceeds the amount of the
contributions due from it for the preceding two full years. The Assembly may,
nevertheless, permit such a State Party to vote in the Assembly and in the Bureau
if it is satisfied that the failure to pay is due to conditions beyond the control of the
State Party.
9. The Assembly shall adopt its own rules of procedure.
10. The official and working languages of the Assembly shall be those of the General
Assembly of the United Nations.
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Part XII Financing
Article 113
Financial Regulations
Except as otherwise specifically provided, all financial matters related to the Court and the
meetings of the Assembly of States Parties, including its Bureau and subsidiary bodies, shall
be governed by this Statute and the Financial Regulations and Rules adopted by the Assembly
of States Parties.
Article 114
Payment of expenses
Expenses of the Court and the Assembly of States Parties, including its Bureau and subsidiary
bodies, shall be paid from the funds of the Court.
Article 115
Funds of the Court and of the Assembly of States Parties
The expenses of the Court and the Assembly of States Parties, including its Bureau and
subsidiary bodies, as provided for in the budget decided by the Assembly of States Parties,
shall be provided by the following sources:
(a) Assessed contributions made by States Parties;
(b) Funds provided by the United Nations, subject to the approval of the
General Assembly, in particular in relation to the expenses incurred due to
referrals by the Security Council.
Article 116
Voluntary contributions
Without prejudice to article 115, the Court may receive and utilize, as additional funds,
voluntary contributions from Governments, international organizations, individuals,
corporations and other entities, in accordance with relevant criteria adopted by the Assembly
of States Parties.
Article 117
Assessment of contributions
The contributions of States Parties shall be assessed in accordance with an agreed scale of
assessment, based on the scale adopted by the United Nations for its regular budget and
adjusted in accordance with the principles on which that scale is based.
Article 118
Annual audit
The records, books and accounts of the Court, including its annual financial statements, shall
be audited annually by an independent auditor.
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Part XIII Final clauses
Article 119
Settlement of disputes
1. Any dispute concerning the judicial functions of the Court shall be settled by the
decision of the Court.
2. Any other dispute between two or more States Parties relating to the
interpretation or application of this Statute which is not settled through
negotiations within three months of their commencement shall be referred to the
Assembly of States Parties. The Assembly may itself seek to settle the dispute or
may make recommendations on further means of settlement of the dispute,
including referral to the International Court of Justice in conformity with the
Statute of that Court.
Article 120
Reservations
No reservations may be made to this Statute.
Article 121
Amendments
1. After the expiry of seven years from the entry into force of this Statute, any State
Party may propose amendments thereto. The text of any proposed amendment
shall be submitted to the Secretary-General of the United Nations, who shall
promptly circulate it to all States Parties.
2. No sooner than three months from the date of notification, the Assembly of States
Parties, at its next meeting, shall, by a majority of those present and voting, decide
whether to take up the proposal. The Assembly may deal with the proposal
directly or convene a Review Conference if the issue involved so warrants.
3. The adoption of an amendment at a meeting of the Assembly of States Parties or
at a Review Conference on which consensus cannot be reached shall require a
two-thirds majority of States Parties.
4. Except as provided in paragraph 5, an amendment shall enter into force for all
States Parties one year after instruments of ratification or acceptance have been
deposited with the Secretary-General of the United Nations by seven-eighths of
them.
5. Any amendment to articles 5, 6, 7 and 8 of this Statute shall enter into force for
those States Parties which have accepted the amendment one year after the
deposit of their instruments of ratification or acceptance. In respect of a State
Party which has not accepted the amendment, the Court shall not exercise its
jurisdiction regarding a crime covered by the amendment when committed by that
State Party's nationals or on its territory.
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6. If an amendment has been accepted by seven-eighths of States Parties in
accordance with paragraph 4, any State Party which has not accepted the
amendment may withdraw from this Statute with immediate effect,
notwithstanding article 127, paragraph 1, but subject to article 127, paragraph 2,
by giving notice no later than one year after the entry into force of such
amendment.
7. The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall circulate to all States Parties
any amendment adopted at a meeting of the Assembly of States Parties or at a
Review Conference.
Article 122
Amendments to provisions of an institutional nature
1. Amendments to provisions of this Statute which are of an exclusively institutional
nature, namely, article 35, article 36, paragraphs 8 and 9, article 37, article 38,
article 39, paragraphs 1 (first two sentences), 2 and 4, article 42, paragraphs 4 to 9,
article 43, paragraphs 2 and 3, and articles 44, 46, 47 and 49, may be proposed at
any time, notwithstanding article 121, paragraph 1, by any State Party. The text of
any proposed amendment shall be submitted to the Secretary-General of the
United Nations or such other person designated by the Assembly of States Parties
who shall promptly circulate it to all States Parties and to others participating in
the Assembly.
2. Amendments under this article on which consensus cannot be reached shall be
adopted by the Assembly of States Parties or by a Review Conference, by a twothirds
majority of States Parties. Such amendments shall enter into force for all
States Parties six months after their adoption by the Assembly or, as the case may
be, by the Conference.
Article 123
Review of the Statute
1. Seven years after the entry into force of this Statute the Secretary-General of the
United Nations shall convene a Review Conference to consider any amendments
to this Statute. Such review may include, but is not limited to, the list of crimes
contained in article 5. The Conference shall be open to those participating in the
Assembly of States Parties and on the same conditions.
2. At any time thereafter, at the request of a State Party and for the purposes set out
in paragraph 1, the Secretary-General of the United Nations shall, upon approval
by a majority of States Parties, convene a Review Conference.
3. The provisions of article 121, paragraphs 3 to 7, shall apply to the adoption and
entry into force of any amendment to the Statute considered at a Review
Conference.
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Article 124
Transitional Provision
Notwithstanding article 12, paragraphs 1 and 2, a State, on becoming a party to this Statute,
may declare that, for a period of seven years after the entry into force of this Statute for the
State concerned, it does not accept the jurisdiction of the Court with respect to the category of
crimes referred to in article 8 when a crime is alleged to have been committed by its nationals
or on its territory. A declaration under this article may be withdrawn at any time. The
provisions of this article shall be reviewed at the Review Conference convened in accordance
with article 123, paragraph 1.
Article 125
Signature, ratification, acceptance, approval or accession
1. This Statute shall be open for signature by all States in Rome, at the headquarters
of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, on 17 July 1998.
Thereafter, it shall remain open for signature in Rome at the Ministry of Foreign
Affairs of Italy until 17 October 1998. After that date, the Statute shall
remain open for signature in New York, at United Nations Headquarters, until 31
December 2000.
2. This Statute is subject to ratification, acceptance or approval by signatory States.
Instruments of ratification, acceptance or approval shall be deposited with the
Secretary-General of the United Nations.
3. This Statute shall be open to accession by all States. Instruments of accession shall
be deposited with the Secretary-General of the United Nations.
Article 126
Entry into force
1. This Statute shall enter into force on the first day of the month after the 60th day
following the date of the deposit of the 60th instrument of ratification, acceptance,
approval or accession with the Secretary-General of the United Nations.
2. For each State ratifying, accepting, approving or acceding to this Statute after the
deposit of the 60th instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession,
the Statute shall enter into force on the first day of the month after the 60th day
following the deposit by such State of its instrument of ratification, acceptance,
approval or accession.
Article 127
Withdrawal
1. A State Party may, by written notification addressed to the Secretary-General of
the United Nations, withdraw from this Statute. The withdrawal shall take effect
one year after the date of receipt of the notification, unless the notification
specifies a later date.
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2. A State shall not be discharged, by reason of its withdrawal, from the obligations
arising from this Statute while it was a Party to the Statute, including any financial
obligations which may have accrued. Its withdrawal shall not affect any
cooperation with the Court in connection with criminal investigations and
proceedings in relation to which the withdrawing State had a duty to cooperate
and which were commenced prior to the date on which the withdrawal became
effective, nor shall it prejudice in any way the continued consideration of any
matter which was already under consideration by the Court prior to the date on
which the withdrawal became effective.
Article 128
Authentic texts
The original of this Statute, of which the Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian and
Spanish texts are equally authentic, shall be deposited with the Secretary-General of the
United Nations, who shall send certified copies thereof to all States.
Inwitness whereof, the undersigned, being duly authorized thereto by their respective
Governments, have signed this Statute.
Done at Rome, this 17th day of July 1998.